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Propoxyphene has about Oxycodone half the analgesic activity of codeine when administered in Oxycodone is one of several semisynthetic morphine deriva- usual therapeutic doses purchase forzest 20 mg fast delivery. It is available as a single agent for acute treatment of combination analgesics such as Darvocet) quality forzest 20mg. It is an agonist linked to several deaths of opioid abusers after they crushed at µ opioid receptors and inhibits the neuronal reuptake of Chapter 23 y Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists 245 serotonin and norepinephrine buy genuine forzest online. The relationship between also appear to have a lower liability for drug dependence and neuronal reuptake inhibition and analgesia is not certain. The mixed opioids Reuptake inhibition, however, may potentiate the inhibitory produce less constipation than do most of the full agonists. Tricyclic antidepres- psychotomimetic effects, including hallucinations, as a sants and other neuronal reuptake inhibitors also have result of the activation of κ opioid receptors. They can also analgesic effects, and some antidepressants are used to treat precipitate withdrawal in a person physically dependent on chronic pain syndromes (see Box 23-2). The parenterally administered agonist- tramadol contributes to the drug’s analgesic activity. Thus antagonist drugs are primarily used for preoperative and the analgesic effect of tramadol is only partly inhibited by postoperative analgesia and for obstetric analgesia dur- opioid antagonists such as naloxone. The orally and nasally administered Tramadol is administered orally to treat moderate pain. Nevertheless, it has been used successfully in the treatment Specifc Drugs of chronic pain syndromes and produces minimal cardio- Buprenorphine, which is a partial agonist at µ receptors, vascular and respiratory depression. The drug lowers the is noted for a slow dissociation from the µ opioid receptor seizure threshold, and the risk of seizures is increased if after binding. It is somewhat longer acting than most tramadol is used concurrently with antidepressants. Like parenterally administered opioid analgesics and can be other agents with antidepressant action, the warnings on administered intramuscularly or intravenously. It was recently tramadol have been modifed to emphasize the increased approved for outpatient treatment of opioid dependence (see risk of suicidal thought and behaviors in patients taking Chapter 25). Tapentadol is a newer opioid analgesic; like lation combined with naloxone (as Suboxone) to prevent tramadol, it acts at µ opioid receptors and reuptake trans- intravenous abuse. A transdermal patch formulation was also porters, but it inhibits only norepinephrine reuptake. Several other opioid agents are available but have little Butorphanol and nalbuphine, which are κ opioid recep- analgesic activity. These include dextromethorphan, which tor agonists, have partial agonist or antagonist activity at has signifcant antitussive activity and is used in the treat- µ opioid receptors. Both drugs are administered parenter- ment of cough (see Chapter 27) and in combination ally, and butorphanol is also available as a nasal spray. The parenteral formulation is primarily Mixed Opioid Agonist-Antagonists used as a preanesthetic medication and as a supplement to and Partial Agonists surgical anesthesia. The oral formulations are used to treat The mixed opioid agonist-antagonists are drugs that exhibit moderate to severe pain, and one of them contains nalox- partial agonist or antagonist activity at µ receptors and show one, a pure opioid antagonist, to discourage parenteral abuse agonist or antagonist activity at κ receptors. Parenteral use of an oral pentazocine formula- buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine. Pentazocine is Drug Properties also available in combination with aspirin or acetaminophen Pharmacokinetics. Their Naloxone and naltrexone are competitive opioid receptor pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic properties are shown in antagonists that can rapidly reverse the effects of morphine Table 23-1. In addition, pentazocine is available for oral use have two primary clinical uses: the treatment of opioid and butorphanol is available as a nasal spray. Butorphanol is overdose and the treatment of alcohol and opioid rapidly absorbed from the nasal mucosa, which thereby dependence. The most important pharmaco- phine, with bulky chemical groups attached to the morphine logic property of these drugs with respect to their clinical molecule. This modifcation allows the molecule to bind to activity is the lack of full agonist effects at µ opioid recep- the opioid receptor but prevents the conformation change tors. Because of this, the mixed opioid agonist-antagonists in the receptor required for agonist activity. Naloxone is also for- Giving analgesics on an as-needed basis sometimes produces mulated with opioid agonists in oral medications to prevent wide swings in pain and sedation during the early phase crushing of the pill and intravenous abuse. Therefore in the initial stages of acute pain, has low bioavailability and is not effective when given orally, analgesics should be given around the clock at regular inter- it does not block the effects of the oral opioid but would vals. The dosage should be titrated to control pain while block opioid effects or even precipitate withdrawal if used minimizing sedation and other side effects. Vivitrol), is also used to treat alcohol and opioid depen- Patient-controlled analgesia is a method of intravenous dence. In contrast to naloxone, naltrexone has high oral administration that permits the patient to self-administer bioavailability and can be used on a long-term basis by preset amounts of an analgesic (e. Choice of Analgesic The location, cause, and severity of pain and the risk of Chronic Pain producing drug dependence are all factors that infuence the Treatment of chronic pain varies greatly with the underlying way in which pain is managed. Although the discussion of specifc chronic pain syn- with acute or chronic pain should be treated with the least dromes is beyond the scope of this text, a few general guide- potent analgesic that will control their pain. Moderate to severe pain is often treated useful in the management of chronic pain syndromes. If pain with codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone alone or in com- is associated with infammation, nonopioid drugs with anti- bination with a nonopioid analgesic. Although meperi- treatment with transcutaneous nerve stimulation or a local dine can be used for acute postsurgical pain and in other anesthetic may help. In some cases, cream containing cap- situations in which the duration of treatment is limited to a saicin is effective. Capsaicin activates peripheral nociceptors few days, it should not be used for longer durations, because on primary sensory neurons, thereby leading to increased of the possible accumulation of a toxic metabolite release of substance P and eventually to the depletion of (normeperidine). Capsaicin produces a burning sen- Acute pain caused by trauma, surgery, or short-term sation for the frst few days of application, but this is gradu- medical conditions can be effectively managed with an anal- ally replaced by an analgesic effect. Hence physicians and other Chronic pain is frequently seen in association with sys- health care professionals should not hesitate to administer temic disorders (e. When pain has been present adequate doses of a suffciently strong analgesic to control for a period of time, the responsiveness of dynamic wide- pain. As these chronic but nonterminal conditions is more diffcult to neurons become “wound up,” their receptive felds increase treat and is often managed with a combination of analge- so that pain is felt over a larger area. These changes appear sics, coanalgesics, psychotherapy, physical therapy, and other to contribute to the maintenance of chronic neuropathic treatment modalities. Patients with this type of pain may beneft from a ment of chronic pain is associated with a risk of opioid combination of nonpharmacologic therapies (e. Strict guidelines for prescription are the antiepileptic drugs and the antidepressant drugs. Pregabalin (Lyrica) was also • Opioid drugs include strong and moderate agonists, one of the frst drugs indicated for the pain of fbromyalgia.
Damage to the median nerve in the upper forearm or at the wrist will also result in loss of flexion order forzest 20mg line, abduction and opposition of the thumb purchase forzest online now, and flexion at the metacarpal phalangeal joints of the index and middle fingers purchase generic forzest from india. The ulnar nerve, which innervates all the other intrinsic hand muscles not noted above, enters the hand anterior to the flexor retinaculum and medial to the ulnar artery. The artery and the nerve are covered anteriorly by a condensation of the fas- cia of the forearm, called the volar carpal ligament. Thus the ulnar nerve and artery come to lie in the Guyon canal, bounded anteriorly by the volar carpal ligament, posteriorly by the flexor retinaculum, medially by the pisiform, and laterally by the hook of the hamate. Which of the following is the structure that forms the anterior wall of the tunnel? The flexor retinaculum or transverse carpal ligament forms the anterior boundary of the carpal tunnel. The median nerve lies just medial to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis at the wrist. The arm was hit with substantial force, and he now complains of severe shoulder pain and his left arm is hanging down with some external rotation. A radio- graph is negative for a fracture, but the head of the humerus is superimposed on the neck of the scapula. He has shoulder pain, and his arm hangs limp down his side with exter- nal rotation. Typically, the dislocation is also inferior such that the humeral head is located inferior and lateral to the coracoid process. The typical mechanism consists in a violent force to the humerus that is abducted and externally rotated, resulting in extension of the joint; this action displaces the humeral head inferiorly, thus tearing the weak inferior portion of the shoulder joint capsule. The strong flexor and adductor muscles pull the humeral head anteriorly and medially to the usual subcoracoid position. Typically, the patient will not move the arm and will support the limb flexed at the elbow with the opposite hand. The usually rounded curve of the shoulder is lost, and there is a depression evident inferior to the acromion. First priorities are assessment of the neural and vascular integrity of the upper limb by testing motor and sensory functions of the fingers and palpation of the radial pulse. Different meth- ods to reduce the dislocation exist, including the modified Hippocratic method, in which one operator pulls on a sheet placed around the thorax of the patient, while a second operator gently applies traction on the wrist of the affected side. Other inju- ries that may accompany a shoulder dislocation include strain on the tendons of the subscapularis and supraspinatus muscles, tears of the glenoid labrum, fracture of the greater tubercle of the humerus, trauma to the axillary nerve (as demonstrated by loss of sensation in the shoulder patch region over the deltoid muscle), and trauma to the axillary artery or its branches, such as the posterior circumflex humeral or subscapular arteries. Be able to list the extrinsic muscles of the shoulder, their action at the shoulder, and their innervation 4. Be able to describe the components of the rotator cuff and their action, innerva- tion, and functional importance to the shoulder. The only bony articulation between the shoulder girdle and the trunk occurs at the sternoclavicular joint. The synovial articula- tion of the clavicle with the manubrium of the sternum is strengthened by a joint capsule, anterior and posterior sternoclavicular, and interclavicular and costocla- vicular ligaments. The lateral end of the clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula to form the acromioclavicular joint. A thin, loose capsule surrounds the acromiocla- vicular joint, which is reinforced superiorly by an acromioclavicular ligament, but its chief strength and support is derived from the trapezoid and conoid ligaments, which together form the coracoclavicular ligament. The articulation of the glenoid cavity on the neck of the scapula with the head of the humerus forms the glenohumeral joint. The anatomy of this joint allows a wide range of motion, although stability is decreased. The diameter of the humeral head is about three times greater than the diameter of the glenoid cavity, which is increased somewhat by a rim of fibrocartilage attached to the margin of the glenoid, the gle- noid labrum. The joint capsule attaches to the margin of the glenoid proximally and to the anatomical neck of the humerus distally. The capsule has openings for the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle and for the subscapular bursa, which communicates with the joint cavity. Three glenohumeral ligaments, bandlike thick- enings of the anterior capsule, are identifiable only internally (Figure 5-1). The roof of the glenohumeral joint is formed by the inferior surface of the acromion and the coracoacromial ligament. This group of mus- cles, the extrinsic muscles of the shoulder, originates from the trunk and inserts onto the scapula in most instances or the humerus directly. The action of muscles attach- ing to the scapula produces movement of the scapula, which greatly increases the range of motion at the shoulder. The extrinsic muscles and the action and innerva- tion of each are listed in Table 5-1. The intrinsic muscles of the shoulder originate from the scapula and insert onto the humerus. The rotator cuff tendons surround and blend with the capsule of the glenohumeral joint and provide major strength and stability to the joint. The intrinsic muscles of the shoulder and their actions and innervations are presented in Table 5-2. The ten- don of the supraspinatus muscle passes superior to the capsule, between it and the acromion and deltoid muscle to insert onto the greater tubercle. The subacromial (subdeltoid) bursa intervenes between the tendon and the undersurface of the acro- mion and the deltoid muscle. Nevertheless, the supraspinatus tendon is typically damaged with rotator cuff tears. You tell him that the chief stability to this joint is from which of the following? You will most likely see damage to the tendon of which of the follow- ing muscles? The primary stability to the glenohumeral joint is provided by the tendons of the rotator cuff. The tendon of the supraspinatus is typically damaged in a rotator cuff tear due to the narrow space between the head of the humerus and the acromion. Although it is protected from the undersurface of the acromion by the subacromial (subdeltoid) bursa, its tendon is usually injured in rotator cuff tears. He enters the passenger seat of their automobile and turns to fasten the seatbelt as his wife begins to exit the parking lot. Another vehicle entering the lot strikes their vehicle head on, and he is thrown forward by the sudden deceleration. His left knee strikes the dashboard violently, and he feels a painful pop in his left hip. After ambulance transport to the hospital emergency department, he is noted to experience severe pain in the left hip region. His left lower limb is noted to be adducted and medially rotated and shorter than his right lower limb There is a painful mass in the lateral gluteal region. His left hip is very painful, and his left lower limb is shortened, adducted, and medially rotated. As he turned to reach for the seatbelt, his hip was flexed because he was in sitting position, and was adducted and medially rotated, the classic hip position for this type of injury.
Normal Nasolabial Angle This also gives the remainder of the medal crura room to rotate No treatment is necessary unless a pushing philtrum is present discount forzest online amex. Reduction rhinoplasty; the nasal spine was normal so there was no treatment for the caudal septum or nasal spine forzest 20 mg free shipping. Rhinoplasty with partial resec- tion of the nasal spine to prevent and counter further nasal tip rotation buy cheapest forzest. The premise of this Nasolabial Angle maneuver is to reset the caudal portion of the nose cephalically These patients have a high nasolabial angle, yet on measure- to create a balanced nasolabial angle and counter any nasal tip ment the nose is excessively long. There was no treatment for rotation that may occur from modifications of the nasal dor- the caudal septum is due to a long nasal septum. Therefore, more septum is resected at the base to help close the nasolabial angle. If the nasolabial angle is close to desirable, a rectangular segment of the cartilage should be Patients with a short septum and an open nasolabial angle tend excised to eﬀectively shorten the columella. Partial reduction of to have a posteriorly sloping upper lip and a small-appearing the nasal spine should be performed to help close the angle. Modified Goldman tip with triangular resection of caudal nasal septum with the apex oriented posterior to allow tip rotation. Partial nasal spine resection with triangular resection of caudal septum with the apex oriented anterior to reduce the nasola- bial angle. Complete removal of the nasal spine is usually necessary to help patient with a short septum and a closed nasolabial angle. This graft is from lay- may require much more extensive nasal lengthening procedures. A single thin layer of carti- Lengthening techniques are outside the purview of this chapter lage is rarely sufficient. Silastic or extended-polytetrafluoro- but may include extended spreader grafts, columellar extension ethylene implants placed caudal to the nasal spine may also be grafts, or stacked onlay grafts. However, This type of nose is more often encountered in platyrrhine and creation of an aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty requires evalu- Asian noses. There is a lack of supporting skeletal structure ation of all aspects of the nose. The intricate relationship require significant support to enhance structure and strengthen of the caudal septum, nasal spine, upper lip, and lobule that weak cartilages. The nasal spine and septum are not altered in a form this angle should be considered in all rhinoplasties. Nasal augmentation with columellar strut, extended shield graft, radix graft, and 4mm thick extended-polytetrafluoro- ethylene premaxillary graft. Intimate knowledge of nasal tip projection, tip rotation, and lateral cartilages, which will decrease the amount of middle the consequences of all surgical maneuvers performed are well vault bulk; caudal resection of the caudal septum; and the use known to be necessary for quality surgical results; additionally, of struts or grafts in the columella. Nasal tip dynamics can fall under two cat- septum with the apex in either the posterior or an anterior egories: a drooping tip and a dependent tip. A drooping tip position to open or close the angle, thus creating a potential relies on the action of the nasalis and depressor septi nasi space for the tip to rotate. When these structures are combined Despite nasal tip rotation maneuvers, the result may be sub- with a prominent nasal spine and caudal septum, they may optimal unless the eﬀect of the columella-labial complex on the protrude, causing an unnatural appearance. A dependent tip is a geon must identify the presence of a pushing philtrum; other- passive phenomenon that causes an acute nasolabial angle, wise the patient will continue to have a displeasing upper lip which in turn results from weak support mechanisms of the that appears to “precede itself’’ and may actually be exagger- nasal tip. Patients with a large dorsal hump and Tardy et al11 described three major and six minor tip-support a relatively large nasal spine may have a nose that is large, yet mechanisms. Reducing the hump without addressing the spine dis- shape, size, and resilience of the lateral and medial crura; the turbs that balance, giving the appearance of a “fixed” nose. The attachment of the lower lateral cartilages to the caudal border spine would appear too large for the now straightened dorsum. The six minor tip support mechanisms are (1) the attach- Partial or complete resection of the nasal spine alone will not ment of the domes of the lower lateral cartilages; (2) the carti- aﬀect projection, unless coupled with alteration of the other laginous septal dorsum; (3) the sesamoid complex, which major tip support mechanisms. In most circumstances, all extends the support of the lateral crura to the pyriform aper- structures of the nasal tip and columella-labial complex are ture; (4) the attachment of the alar cartilages to the underlying altered in some manner. Nasal spine resection will result in skin and musculature; (5) the nasal spine; and (6) the membra- resetting the caudal portion of the nose at the base of the col- nous septum. Reestablishment or preservation of these support umella superiorly, thus creating a balanced nasolabial angle. It mechanisms is necessary to ensure proper tip projection during has been our observation that removal of the nasal spine alone rhinoplasty. In two patients who had spine removal without modi- (1) interruption of the continuity of the lower lateral cartilages fication of the nasal tip or caudal septum, no detectable to its attachment on the maxilla, (2) vertical dome division, and changes were recorded in nasal tip projection or angle. Flowers and Smith13 have trimming to reduce tip width; caudal trimming of the upper described a unique technique for correcting a retracted colum- 363 Tip Rhinoplasty ella, an acute columellar-labial angle, and a long upper lip. A a minority of patients and the caudal septum in considerably decorticated centrally based transverse flap from the lip and more. However, failure to recognize contributions of the nasola- nostril is transposed into a columellar pocket that eﬀectively bial complex may result in an unsatisfactory result, which is an shortens the upper lip, corrects the retracted columella, and unacceptable aesthetic complication. This technique also avoids ters for altering or preserving the nasolabial angle and its struc- alloplastic or autogenous grafting. Cachay-Velasquez and Laguinge14 advocate excising a rhom- boidal/diamond portion of both the depressor muscle and the orbicularis muscle and suturing the remaining ends with a mat- References tress suture. Columella-labial changes in solution of rhino- nasolabial angle, and reducing the interalar distance without plastic problems. Surgical treatment of the nasolabial angle in bal- there is excessive columellar show. Clin Plast Surg 1977; 4: 153–162 back in a cephaloposterior direction onto the caudal septum. In: Reconstructive Sur- gery of the Head and Neck: Proceedings of the International Symposium. Importance of ful in patients with excessive columellar show and an acute the depressor septi nasi muscle in rhinoplasty: anatomic study and clinical nasolabial angle. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1987; groove technique and have found it to be very eﬀective for 20: 653–674 achieving a controlled nasolabial angle and tip projection. J Otolaryngol 1990; 19: 319–323 Our experience using this flowchart in addressing the colum-  Rees T. Aes- ella-labial complex has helped to consistently construct a har- thetic Plastic Surgery, vol. Technique for correction of the retracted columella, shortening of the caudal septum may cause feminization. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1999; avoid poor results Webster et al1 recommend changes of no 23: 243–246 more than 5mm. The tongue-in-groove technique in septorhi- complex for any surgeon to consider when evaluating a patient noplasty.