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As pyrexia is controlled by the hypothalamus generic 20 mg tadora, peripheral cooling increases stimuli for centrally regulated heat production/conservation buy generic tadora line. Vasoconstriction increases differences between core and peripheral temperatures order 20mg tadora otc, pooling heat centrally, and so exposing the main organs to further protein denaturation and damage. Masking symptoms does not resolve problems, although reducing metabolic rate decreases oxygen consumption. Sweating is effectively tepid sponging, although clean water may provide more psychological comfort than human sweat. If employed, tepid sponging should use tepid (not cold) water as cold water produces both discomfort and vasoconstriction. Skin surface heat conduction can be increased by the use of cooling blankets and mats, although some of these are hard and uncomfortable, thus predisposing to pressure sore formation with prolonged use (and vasoconstriction) (Shackell 1996); if used, nurses should observe any detrimental effects. Ice packs are best avoided since they may cause cold burns (Shackell 1996) and cannot be (easily) regulated. Most studies with antipyretics are paediatric (Shackell 1996); anecdotal reports suggest less consistent benefits with adults. Sweat evaporation, vasodilation and increased capillary permeability cause hypotension, necessitating fluid replacement. Electrolyte imbalances, acid-base imbalance and hyperglycaemia should be monitored and treated where appropriate. Dinsmore and Hall (1997) suggest that while dantrolene decreases cooling time, it does not affect outcome. Neuromuscular blockade (paralysis) may be used to prevent shivering (heat production). Implications for practice ■ pyrexia is a symptom, not a disease; managing pyrexia should be evidence-based, using individual holistic nursing assessment rather than ritualised practice ■ pyrexia may be a useful defence mechanism, but it will increase oxygen consumption ■ peripheral cooling is usually illogical and counterproductive ■ central cooling (antipyretic drugs) can restore normal hypothalamic thermoregulation ■ mercury-in-glass thermometers are potentially hazardous ■ thermometers should be left in place for sufficient time to obtain reliable readings; discomfort/dangers to patients from their use should be remembered Summary Legacies from rituals and folklore have left a range of inappropriate reflexes to pyrexia. This chapter has explored the benefits and burdens of fever, mentioned some of the more commonly used means and sites of measurement, together with ways of managing fever to enable nurses to develop evidence-based practice. Further reading Much material is written from general nursing or paediatric experience, sometimes relying more on tradition than research. Styrt and Sugarman (1990) remains a thorough review of the issues to consider before responding to fever. On the first postoperative day (24 hours) Frank’s core (central) body temperature is 38. Which would be the most appropriate method to monitor Frank’s core temperature (consider accuracy, time resources, safety, comfort, minimal adverse effects)? Chapter 9 Nutrition Introduction Nutrition is fundamental to health, yet Nightingale’s (1980 ) claim that thousands starve in hospitals in the midst of plenty still has some validity. Prescription practices for nutrition vary widely between different hospitals and feeds; multidisciplinary teams can bring together a wealth of knowledge, but a lack of identified leadership can also cause inaction. One single day’s severe catabolism can take one week’s nutrition to reverse (Horwood 1990). Nitrogen, the major source of amino acids, is essential for the production of body proteins. Thus: neutral nitrogen = dietary nitrogen matches urinary nitrogen balance negative nitrogen = excess urinary nitrogen from breakdown of body protein for energy balance (catabolism) positive nitrogen = protein building (anabolism) balance Nitrogen balance is normally measured by 24-hour urine collections; however abnormal nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen loss (e. Intensive care nursing 80 Metabolism Metabolic rate is the energy produced by all chemical reactions and mechanical work in the body. It may be measured in calories (cal), kilocalories/kiloCalories (kcal/kCal) or joules/kilo joules (J/kJ). It is measured by number of calories consumed each hour per square metre of body surface area or per kilogram of body weight (see Schofield equation: Table 9. At rest, most body heat is generated by vital organs (liver, heart, brain, endocrine). Thus Nutrition 81 As metabolism produces heat, high metabolic rates can cause pyrexia. Direct measurement of metabolism (direct calorimetry) is currently clinically impractical. Fatty acids and cholesterol are essential for cell membranes, hormones and immunity. The liver metabolises fat; elsewhere, the body uses glucose rather than fat for energy production. Since dietary fat, and hence cholesterol production, usually exceeds demand, most fat is stored. However, these figures ignore the effects of dehydration and fluid retention (Wallace 1993) that often complicate critical illness. Being under- or overweight significantly increases health risks (Gibbs 1996) as extra fat increases vasculature, systemic vascular resistance and the risk of pathologies such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus. Fats can be classified by saturation—the number of atoms joined by single bonds— and so saturated fatty acids (usually animal fat) have univalent bonds joining all atoms; valency determines the hydrogen binding capacity of molecules, and so saturated fatty acids contribute to hypercholestrolamia and cardiovascular (especially coronary) disease. Intensive care nursing 82 The Krebs’ cycle (‘Citric Acid Cycle’) Fat metabolism, which is the combination of pyruvate and coenzyme A (CoA), produces adenosine triphosphate (for energy) together with various waste products—ketone and other metabolic acids, carbon dioxide, water. Hypoperfusion (shock) deprives tissues of sufficient glucose, necessitating (anaerobic) fat metabolism. Thus feeds formulated with fewer carbohydrate calories may reduce respiratory acidosis in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition Immunoglobulins in the gut wall (IgA, IgM) protect against translocation of gut bacteria, but gut villi necrose within minutes of splanchnic hypoperfusion (shock), structure and function markedly deteriorating within one week of starvation (Buckley & McFie 1997). Although most evidence for this is from animal studies (rodent cells migrate from villi crypts to tips in 1–2 days; in humans, this takes 6–7 days (McFie 1996)), enterai feeding assists wound healing (Heyland 1998), immunity and reduces infection. Ryles®) are easier to insert than fine bore tubes, but cause more upper airway/gastrointestinal inflammation, erosions and haemorrhage (Bettany & Powell-Tuck 1997). As fine-bore tubes cannot be aspirated, residual volumes cannot be measured to test absorption and require X-ray confirmation of placement before use (Briggs 1996b). Marking nasogastric tubes enables any external tube migration to be detected (Methany 1993). The absence of bowel sounds does not necessarily indicate absence of function (Methany 1993); most bowels sounds are from swallowed air (Raper & Maynard 1992), which is reduced by intubation. Physiological gut secretions often exceed 9 litres/day, and so absorption may be present despite aspirate volumes of up to 200 ml. Discarding aspirated volumes may cause electrolyte imbalance, although research evidence is currently inconclusive (Methany 1993). Unlike normal oral diets, continuous enterai feeding maintains reduced gastric acidity. Gastric colonies migrating up nasogastric tubes readily cause pneumonia: uninterrupted enterai feeding increases ventilator-associated pneumonia by over 54 per cent (Lee et al.
This in turn causes an enzyme inside the cell to initiate a physiological response or causes the opening of the ion channel purchase 20 mg tadora free shipping. A drug that causes a physiological response is called an agonist and a drug that blocks a physiological response is referred to as an antagonist buy cheap tadora 20mg online. An inhibitory action of 50 (I50) indicates that the drug effec- tively inhibits the receptor response in 50% of the population order generic tadora online. Cholinergic receptors are located in the blad- der, heart, blood vessels, lungs, and eyes. A drug that is given to stimulate the cholinergic receptors will decrease the heart rate and blood pressure, increase gastric acid secretion, constrict bronchioles, increase urinary bladder contraction, and con- strict the pupils. Categories of Drug Action Drugs are categorized by the type of action it causes on the body. These are drugs that replace an essential body compound such as insulin or estrogen. These drugs interfere with bacterial cell and limit bacterial growth or eliminate the bacteria, such as penicillin. These drugs irritate cells to cause a natural response that has a therapeutic effect such as a laxative that irritates the colon wall to increase movement of the colon resulting in defecation. Therapeutic Index and Therapeutic Range Drugs have a pharmaceutical response as long as the dose remains within the drug’s margin of safety. This means that a patient can be given a wide range of dose levels without experiencing a toxic effect. Other drugs have a narrow margin of safety where a slightest change in the dose can result in an undesirable adverse side effect. These drugs require that levels in the plasma be monitored and adjustments are made to the dosage in order to prevent a toxic effect from occurring. The plasma drug levels must be within the therapeutic range, which is also known as the therapeutic window. Peak levels indicate the rate a drug is absorbed in the body and is affected by the route used to administer the drug. Drugs administered intravenously have a fast peak drug level while a drug taken orally has a slow peak drug level because the drugs needs time to be absorbed and distributed. Blood samples are drawn at peak times based on the route used to administer the drug. The trough level is the lowest plasma concentration of the drug and measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated. Blood should be drawn immediately before the next dose is given regardless of the route used to administer the drug. Side Effects A drug can have a side effect in addition to its pharmaceutical response. A severe undesirable side effect is referred to as an adverse reaction that occurs unintentionally when a normal dose of the drug is given to a patient. For example, an adverse reaction might be anaphylaxis (cardiovascular collapse) Some adverse reactions are predictable by age and weight of the patient. Young children and the elderly are highly responsive to medications because of an immature or decline in hepatic and renal function. Women typically are smaller than men and have a different propor- tion of fat and water which affects absorption and distribution of the drug. Cold, heat, sensory deprivation or overload, and oxygen depriva- tion in high altitude create environmental factors that might interact with a drug. A drug might be influenced by the presence or absence of food in the patient’s gastrointestinal tract or by the patient’s cortio- costeroid secretion rhythm. In addition, circadian cycle, urinary excretion pat- tern, fluid intake, and drug metabolizing enzyme rhythms all might influence a drug’s effect. A drug can react differently if the patient is experiencing pain, anxiety, circulatory distress, or hepatic and/or renal dysfunction. This is an abnormal response that is unpredictable and unex- plainable that could result from the patient overresponding or underresponding to the drug or the drug having an effect that is different from what is expected. The patient has a decreased physiologic response after repeated administration of the drug. With a physical dependency, the patient experiences an intense physical distur- bance when the drug is withdrawn. With psychological dependency, the patient develops an emotional reliance on the drug. The administration of one drug increases or decreases the pharmaceutical response of a previously administered drug. A more desirable pharmaceutical response is achieved through the interaction of two drugs that are administered. Concurrent administration of two drugs increases the pharma- ceutical response of one of those drugs. This occurs when the administered drug exceeds the therapeutic range through an overdose or by the drug accumulating in the patient. The patient builds a tolerance to the drug due to the frequency in which the drug is administered. The patient receives a psychological benefit from receiving a compound that has no pharmaceutical response. A drug varies from a predicted response because of the influence of a patient’s genetic factors. Genetic factors can alter the metab- olism of the drug and results in an enhanced or diminished pharmaceutical response. If the patient was previously sensitized to the drug, a drug might trigger the patient’s immunologic mechanism that results in allergic symp- toms. Antibodies are produced the first time the drug is introduced to the patient creating a sensitivity to the drug. The next time the drug is given to the patient, the drug reacts with the antibodies and results in the production of histamine. The patient should not take any drug that causes the patient to have an allergic reaction. This is an autoimmune response that results in hemo- lytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or lupus erythematosus (blood disorders). This is referred to as serum sickness and results in angioedema, arthralgia (sore joints), fever, swollen lymph nodes, and splenomegaly (large spleen). The immune complex reaction can appear up to three weeks after the drug is administered. This is an inflammatory skin reaction that is also known as delayed hypersensitivity. Summary A drug has a physiochemical action with the physiological process of the body resulting in a pharmaceutical response. Drugs replace a missing element such as a hormone, interrupts a physiological process or stimulates a physiological process to occur. In addition to a therapeutic effect, drugs may have side effects that can be desirable or undesirable. The first dose is called a loading dose or priming dose and consists of a large concentration of the drug.
Insulting a person or Further Reading physically harming someone are examples of confronta- Kazdin discount tadora 20mg line, Alan E buy tadora 20mg free shipping. Conduct Disorders in Children and strategies of diffusion developed during the second half Adolescents buy cheap tadora on line. Based on the idea that Further Information it is better to expose and resolve conflict before it dam- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Conflict resolution in educa- and developing guidelines for treatment of childhood and tion includes any strategy that promotes handling dis- adolescent mental health disorders. By the late 1990s most major cities had instituted some form of large-scale conflict Conflict resolution resolution program. According to a 1994 National The process of defusing antagonism and reaching School Boards study, 61% of schools had some form of agreement between conflicting parties, especially conflict resolution program. Also, the study and practice of solving interpersonal and inter- Most conflict resolution programs employ some form group conflict. In the negotiation process, parties with “Conflict” from the Latin root “to strike together” opposing interests hold conversations to settle a dispute. Conflict to win as many concessions to his or her own self-interest may take place within one person, between two or more as possible (win-lose), or integrative, where parties at- people who know each other, or between large groups of tempt to discover solutions that embody mutual self-inter- people who do not know each other. Research on games theory and the decision- al confrontation between persons, or merely symbolic making process suggest that the face-to-face conversation confrontation through words and deeds. The conflict involved in direct negotiation may actually influence peo- may be expressed through verbal denigration, accusa- ple to act in the interest of the group (including the oppos- tions, threats, or through physical violence to persons or ing party), or some other interest beyond immediate self- property. The The success of a given instance of conflict resolu- issues of the conflict may be varied, ranging from the tion depends on the attitudes and skills of the disputants simple to the complex. If one person decides to begin the project without the input of the other person, this per- son’s attitude has already jeopardized the conflict resolu- tion process. It is the mediator’s role to clearly lay out the issues of the conflict and to help the disputants arrive at the appropriate response to the conflict. There are sev- eral responses to a conflict: withdrawing from a conflict; demanding or requesting the opposing party to concede; providing reasons the opposing party should concede (appealing to norms); proposing alternatives to the op- posing party; and proposing “if” statements, suggesting willingness to negotiate. Perspective taking, or articulat- ing and validating the feelings and thoughts of the other party (“I see that you want…. Integration of interests (“We both want…”) reflects the highest level, leading to a consensual settlement of negotiations. According to the principles of conflict resolution, the only true solution to a conflict is one that attempts to satisfy the inherent needs of all the parties involved. Conflict Resolution in the Schools: A conformity and compliance work to make them adhere to Manual for Educators. It made use of an optical illusion called the autokinetic National Institute for Dispute Resolution. In Sherif’s experiment, several subjects were placed together in a room with a stationary light. As the indi- Adaptation of one’s behavior or beliefs to match viduals listened to the descriptions of others, their an- those of the other members of a group. The power of social Conformity describes the adaptation of behavior norms was demonstrated even more strikingly when the that occurs in response to unspoken group pressure. It subjects continued to adhere to the norm later when they differs from compliance, which is adaptation of behavior were retested individually. Individuals conform to or strates one of the important conditions that produces comply with group behavior in an attempt to “fit in” or conformity: ambiguity. In most cases, swer to the question asked of the subjects, so they were conforming to social norms is so natural that people more vulnerable to reliance on a norm. However, each subject was Sigmund Freud viewed the conscience as one of tested in a room full of “planted” peers who deliberately two components of the superego, the other being the gave the wrong answer in some cases. In this scheme, the conscience prevents people fourths of the subjects tested knowingly gave an incorrect from doing things that are morally wrong, and the ego- answer at least once in order to conform to the group. This theory suggests that the conscience is Asch’s experiment revealed other factors—notably developed by parents, who convey their beliefs to their unanimity and size of the majority—that influence con- children. They in turn internalize these moral codes by a formity even when ambiguity isn’t an issue. Even one dissenter decreases the Other psychologists have proposed different theo- incidence of conformity markedly. People who follow the lead of an initial dissenter Further Reading may even disagree with that person and be dissenting Weissbud, Bernice. Although the ambiguity and unanimity of the situation are powerful contributors Consciousness to the incidence of conformity, they are not the sole de- Awareness of external stimuli and of one’s own terminants. Individuals who have a low status within a group or are unfamiliar Wilhelm Wundt’s investigations of consciousness, with a particular situation are the ones most likely to begun in 1879, were central to the development of psy- conform. Wundt’s approach, called members of a study or activity group, or new residents to structuralism, sought to determine the structure of con- a community are more likely to be affected by the pres- sciousness by recording the verbal descriptions provided sure to conform. Personality traits, such as concern by laboratory subjects to various stimuli, a method that with being liked or the desire to be right, also play a role. Certain cultures proach to the study of consciousness was the functional- are more likely than others to value group harmony over ism of William James,who focused on how conscious- individual expression. Behavior- ganization managers, and even parents can establish an ism,pioneered by John B. Watson in the early 1900s, atmosphere or “culture” that either fosters conformity or shifted interest from conscious processes to observable allows for dissension and individuality. Teaching Your Child to was at the heart of Sigmund Freud’s model of human Handle Peer Pressure. He also formulated the concept of the preconscious,which functions as an Conscience intermediate or transitional level of mind between the The moral dimension of human consciousness, the unconscious and the conscious. A preconscious thought means by which humans modify instinctual drives can quickly become conscious by receiving attention, to conform to laws and moral codes. In contrast, the re- In meditation, an altered state of consciousness is pressed material contained in the unconscious can only achieved by performing certain rituals and exercises. The collective unconscious con- widely used in the United States for purposes of relax- tains images and symbols, called archetypes, that Jung ation. It has been found that during this type of medita- found are shared by people of diverse cultures and tend tion, people consume less oxygen, eliminate less carbon to emerge in dreams,myths, and other forms. In Jung’s dioxide, and breathe more slowly than when they are in view, a thorough analysis of both the personal and col- an ordinary resting state. Although sleep suspends the voluntary exercise of stances as alcohol, tobacco, and coffee. The major cate- both bodily functions and consciousness, it is a much gories of psychoactive drugs include depressants, which more active state than was once thought. Delta waves demarcate the thought, memory, and perception, are particularly deepest levels of sleep, when heart rate, respiration, tem- known for their consciousness-altering properties. They perature, and blood flow to the brain are reduced and can produce distortion of one’s body image, loss of growth hormone is secreted.