One of these patients required reoperation on and an interval of hypothermic brain perfusion from the aortic root and the ascending aortic graf for presumed the right carotid and right vertebral arteries discount advair diskus online master card, during infection 15 months post-operatively discount advair diskus 100mcg on-line. The aortic root was which the three brachiocephalic arteries were atached replaced with an aortic allograf order 250 mcg advair diskus fast delivery, and the ascending por- to the branches of the aortic graf – the mean duration tion of the previously inserted aortic graf was replaced of circulatory arrest was reduced to 10 minutes and with a new polyester graf. At operation, erosion of the graf result- nique and in 5% of the patients with the branched graf ing from compression against a rib was noted, and a seg- technique, suggesting that this is a highly eﬀective tech- ment of the graf was replaced. The arch ﬁrst technique has a chronic descending aortic dissection, required replace- the additional advantages of providing arterial brain ment of the remaining contiguous thoracic and upper perfusion without the need for direct cannulation of the abdominal aorta for aneurysmal enlargement 34 months brachiocephalic arteries (a potential cause of emboliza- afer the initial operation. The fourth patient required tion and stroke), or for a separate perfusion circuit for resection of a separate infradiaphragmatic degenera- the brain. All surviving When used in conjunction with a bilateral anterior patients have been followed with serial computed tomo- thoracotomy, excellent exposure is obtained of the heart, graphic studies at 6−12 month intervals. To date, no other the brachiocephalic arteries, both phrenic and the lef patient has had suﬃcient enlargement of the remaining vagus nerves, and the entire descending thoracic aorta. Injury to the dilated ascending aorta, that can occur with a median sternotomy incision during a reoperation, is avoided because the transverse thoracotomy incision is Advantages of the arch-ﬁrst technique made below this level. The wide exposure of the lef pleu- ral cavity avoids excessive manipulation and compres- We implemented the arch-ﬁrst technique for procedures sion of the lef lung, which can result in intrapulmonary that required total replacement of the aortic arch to mini- hemorrhage in a fully heparinized patient. If coronary artery bypass grafing is using axillary artery cannulation, a brief period of circu- necessary, exposure of the three major coronary arterial latory arrest, subsequent hypothermic antegrade brain systems is easily accomplished. The right atrium and the perfusion, and a branched graf, has substantially interatrial groove are easily exposed if tricuspid or mitral reduced the duration of circulatory arrest of the brain. It eliminates the need for cannulation of the brachio- Use of a bilateral anterior thoracotomy also permits cephalic arteries and the atendant risk of embolization, resection of the entire thoracic aorta. Single-stage extensive replace- ﬁrst technique ment of the thoracic aorta: the arch-first technique. Single- exposure of the entire aortic arch is necessary, and this is stage reoperative repair of chronic type A aortic dissection best accomplished with a bilateral anterior thoracotomy by means of the arch-first technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg approach that requires sacriﬁce of both internal tho- 2001; 122: 578−582. Concern has also been expressed about brain injury during operations on the aortic arch. Ann Thorac a high prevalence of pulmonary complications with this Surg 1994; 57: 243−245. Total aortic arch replacement tions in our series, however, does not exceed that reported with a branched graft and limited circulatory arrest of the brain. A low prevalence experience with arch-first technique and bilateral anterior of pulmonary complications with a bilateral anterior thoracotomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc this incision has been widely and successfully used for Surg 1975; 70: 1051−1063. Transverse aortic arch aneurysm: impaired pulmonary function , mediastinal and bilat- improved results of treatment employing new modifications eral pulmonary tumors , and complex congenital of aortic reconstruction and hypothermic circulatory arrest. Treatment of aortic arch that it is a safe and suitable alternative to other methods dissection using the elephant trunk technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc in patients requiring reoperation for chronic ascending Surg 1994; 107: 788−799. Cardiopulmonary tial dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta support and physiology. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117: that can preclude safe suturing of an aortic graf to this 156−163. The ele- stage procedure for treatment of extensive degenerative phant trunk technique: operative results in 100 consecutive aortic disease that is conﬁned to the thoracic aorta. J Card shell incision: an improved approach to bilateral pulmo- Surg 1994; 9: 604−613. These Introduction results indicate that it is useful to avoid the cessation of cerebral ﬂow in order to reduce post-operative cognitive Many technical improvements are currently employed dysfunction. Cardiac-related complications, which tend to be However, the surgical method for arch aneurysm repair emphasized less than neurological complications, also remains complex, and there still persist several problems contribute to mortality afer thoracic aortic surgery. Because of the high prevalence of are two distinct pathophysiological mechanisms of cere- ischemic heart disease in older individuals, particularly bral damage afer surgery for ascending or arch aneurysms those with degenerative aneurysms, it is important to [3−6]. The choice of arterial cannulation site for arterial inﬂow, arterial cannulation itself, and charac- Strategies for cardiopulmonary bypass teristics of arterial cannulae inﬂuence the risk of cerebral embolism . Patients who require thromboembolism caused by detached atheromatous longer intervals of interruption of normal antegrade debris from the arterial wall. Both aortic cross-clamping cerebral perfusion sometimes have diﬀuse injury of the and aortic cannulation are maneuvers well known to cause brain. Despite the use of various techniques for brain when malposition of the arterial cannula occurs. Therefore, intra-operative epiaortic ultrasound 208 Aortic Arch Surgery: Principles, Strategies and Outcomes. Care must be taken not to open the site and whether aortic cross-clamping can be carried pericardium widely or rapidly, because quick reversal of out or not. In recent years, we have avoided retrograde cardiac tamponade may cause a rapid increase in arterial systemic perfusion through the femoral artery as much pressure and catastrophic aortic rupture. Afer obtaining as possible to prevent catastrophic retrograde cerebral stable hemodynamics, we expose the right axillary artery embolism . Retrograde perfusion through the femoral for cannulation as a secure second perfusion line. In case artery may disperse the atheromatous plaques, especially the dissection involves an axillary artery, cannulation of in patients with severe degenerative and atheromatous the axillary artery on that side is contraindicated. Arterial perfusion is performed through an 8-mm sealed graf anastomosed in an end-to-side fashion. We use femoral Strategies for brain protection perfusion only for lower body perfusion. There has been no evidence to indicate that bilateral axillary artery per- Two methods of brain protection that have been used in fusion is superior to unilateral axillary artery perfusion. Retrograde cerebral perfusion technique Perfusion temperature depends on the method of brain protection. Since we jugular vein pressure at between 15 and 25 mmHg with frequently perform an open distal anastomosis, we set the a ﬂow rate of 300–400 ml/min. If the descending aorta can be clamped, the cardioplegia delivery system and a small cannula are the lowest perfusion temperature can be increased. However, when the ascending aorta cannot be these patients the incidence of embolization of atheroma- clamped because of severe atheromatous changes, the tous debris is lower . The femoral arteries have been the by decreasing the perfusion temperature to below 20°C, preferred site of peripheral cannulation for arterial inﬂow because retrograde perfusion is too limited in its distribu- in ascending aortic dissection operations. We prefer to put second and third arterial perfusion cannulae in the We believe it is important to perfuse all three arch bilateral axillary arteries whenever the patient is hemo- vessels because patients with atherosclerotic aor- dynamically stable. At a minimium, we routinely use the tic aneurysms frequently have stenotic lesions in right axillary artery for arterial inﬂow to avoid malperfu- the brain vessels. In case of hemodynamic instability due to cardiac artery arising from the lef subclavian artery plays an tamponade, we perform median sternotomy and pericar- important role because the communication between diotomy concurrently with exposure of the femoral artery the right and lef brain circulations might be poor.
In the chronic collapses regular chest Collapse due to obstruction of peripheral bronchi or physiotherapy and antibiotics are useful measures collapse with a patent bronchus buy 500mcg advair diskus fast delivery. Hence generic advair diskus 100 mcg visa, unless definite history of the conditions causing fibrosis is available discount 500 mcg advair diskus, this collapse will be clinically and radiographically appreciated as collapse with a patent bronchus. Investigations and treatment of fibrotic collapse are directed to the underlying cause. Infection and hemoptysis are frequent complications, which can be treated medically. Rarely surgery may be required for persistent or life-threatening hemoptysis that may occur due to the associated bronchiectasis or complicating fungus ball. Compressive Collapse (Relaxation Collapse) It occurs from compression of the lung due to pleural disease like effusion, pneumothorax and hydro-pneumothorax. However, in cases of pleural effusions the fluid in the pleural cavity and Fibrotic Collapse (Contraction Collapse/ the collapsed lung are both opaque and hence the Cicatrical Collapse) (Fig. However so that unnecessary investigations to exclude if the effusion is associated with a central obstructed malignancy are avoided. This the lung bases associated with reduced diaphrag- type of collapse is not appreciated radiographically. Fleischner proved that these lines were due to collapse of small pulmonary sub- Other Types of Collapse divisions. Recognition of clinical and radio- collapse associated with pleural disease, graphic features of pulmonary collapse, and radiographically seen as a round or oval or angular understanding the mechanisms underlying these mass (Fig. Replacement fibrosis: In which the fibrosis tissue replaces lung parenchyma damaged by infection 3. Interstitial fibrosis: Which may be regarded as end or by some destructive process e. These are replaced by opacification as lung and treatment of the so-called middle lobe syndrome. Pleural Diseases 181 Jyotsna M Joshi Pleural DiseasesPleural DiseasesPleural DiseasesPleural DiseasesPleural Diseases 7 7. Hemothorax indicates presence of blood in the However, a group of patients have been described pleural cavity. Similarly in severe hypoproteinemia status pleural fluid protein may be low even in exudates. A traumatic tap on the presence of fluid, differentiating fluid from pleural other hand clots on standing and subsequent tapping thickening (organized fluid), identifying loculations results in clearing of pleural fluid. Chylothorax is due to collection of chyle in pleural A diagnostic pleural tap with biochemical, cavity as a result of rupture of thoracic duct. Fluid cytological and microbiological examination of the is usually milky but may be serous. Classically a homogeneous opacity is mesothelioma particularly are difficult to diagnose seen with obliteration of costophrenic angle and a on percutaneous biopsy and require thoracotomy. This is a radiological illusion and occurs due biopsy shows non-specific pleuritis, no further to lower medial radiological density due to presence investigation is necessary and the patients may be of partially aerated lung in between the anterior and observed. In some cases clinical correlation with posterior fluid layers, whereas laterally the density sputum examination, lymph node biopsy or other is higher due to presence of fluid only. Early decortication, open drainage or thoraco- plasty in cases of non-responding empyema 6. Pleurodesis—As tetracycline is not available, Unlikely features: Presence of eosinophils or mesothelial doxycycline (300-500 mg) can be used with equal cells. Failure of therapy is Treatment: Prompt drainage with intercostal tube and indicated for patients continuing to run fever. Therefore, a late decortation for Diagnostic: Cytology (fluid should be sent with functional restoration may not be required in all heparin 200 units in 20 ml fluid). Exudate with predominant lymphocytes, serous, Treatment: Chemotherapy, radiotherapy or palliation hemorrhagic in less than 10 percent cases. In mesothelioma percutaneous biopsy may not be sufficient and thoracotomy and open biopsy may be required. Pleural Effusions Associated with Connective Tissue Disorders Rheumatoid arthritis: Exudate with lymphocyte predominance. Pleural Diseases 185 Treatment • Serous fluid, transudate with predominant • Self limiting over several weeks, lymphocytes and mesothelial cells. Pleural tap is required if patient has fever, unilateral effusion, pleuritic chest pain. Most commonly by Ultrasonography showing abscess in liver with Clinical correlation. Increasing effusion is often associated Pleural thickening may occur requiring decort- with decrease in ascitic fluid). Fluid may remain Pancreatitis Associated Pleural Effusions unchanged till all ascitis has been drained. In chronic increase in pleural fluid amylase Serous, resembles dialysate, < 100 cells mono- but serum amylase normal. Nephrotic Syndrome Chest X-ray Bilateral effusions, often large in size, due to decre- May be associated with pneumonia. Diagnosis Treatment Effusion is transudative, but over a time it may Of the primary problem. Pleural Diseases 187 Clinical Presentation Increased hyaluronic acid and asbestos bodies are not seen. Majority of patients (50%) are asymptomatic so discovered usually by routine chest radiograph. Effusion is Following Myocardial infarction cardiac surgery, serosanguinous exudate. Pleural blunt chest trauma, percutaneous left ventricle fluid eosinophilia (up to 50%) has been observed. Clinical Presentation Fever, pleuropericarditis and parenchymal infil- tration seen after 3 weeks (range 2-86 days) follow- ing myocardial injury. Pleural fluid is bloody, exudative with polymorphic predominance if the sample is obtained within 10 days of onset of symptoms later mono- nuclear, cells predominant. But some patients with massive effusion with symptoms may require corticosteroid therapy for resolution. Though it is easily and frequently diagnosed, its management poses may difficulties to Benign Postpartum Pleural Effusion the physician due to varying etiologies, stages of Etiology presentation and response to treatment and surgery. It is not possible on the basis of available data to Etiology determine the true incidence of benign postpartum The organism responsible for empyema is difficult effusion. But a reported patient series demonstrated to pin point, but the most likely etiology can be a high frequency (23-97%) on the basis of nonspecific considered if the age and associated predisposing radiographic criteria. These are summarized in quently as a physiological consequence of uncompli- Table 7. All the organisms considered common cated labor with following proposed mechanisms. Increased blood volume and decreased colloid are due to the association of empyema with pressure that could promote transudation of low pneumonia, i.
Usually affect people between ages 30 and 50 years and affect females more than males (3:2) purchase advair diskus 100mcg visa. These lesions occasionally become malignant order generic advair diskus, and excision with surrounding normal tissue is treatment of choice purchase generic advair diskus online. Even if benign, these lesions can be pseudometastatic; if cut, they can reseed locally. They are usually red– brown in color due to the amount of hemosiderin found in the tissue. Histologically, these giant cell tumors of tendon sheath are identical to pigmented villonodular synovitis. The condition is benign but progressive, and slowly worsens and can lead to bony erosions and arthritis. Treatment involves surgical excision of abnormal synovium and possible fusion of damaged joints. The synovium will appear red– brown in color due to the hemosiderin found in the tissue. Synovial Sarcoma (Tendosynovial Sarcoma, Malignant Synovioma) Rare, highly malignant tumor usually found in the arms and legs of teens and young adults. Symptoms are highly variable but usually present with an otherwise asymptomatic swelling or slow-growing mass. Tends to occur near but not in the large joints of the arms and legs, especially the knees. Due to its 433 vague symptoms, it should be in the differential diagnosis for all deep pedal pain, especially in young adults. Treatment often necessitates amputation unless a large tumor-free area can be taken with the lesion. Epidermoid cyst presents as a slow-growing, round, firm, elevated subcutaneous lesion. An infundibular cyst is an epidermal inclusion cyst originating from a hair follicle. General: Includes macroscopic evaluation, specific gravity, and a dipstick segment b. Microscopic evaluation: Quantitative assessment of cellular component Specific Gravity Normal value: 1. Sweet smell: Smell of acetone on diabetic ketosis Putrid smell: Presence of bacteria Maple syrup smell: Due to a genetic disorder called maple sugar urine 452 disease. An enzymatic defect (branched-chain keto acid decarboxylase) renders the children unable to break down branched- chain amino acids and they accumulate in the urine. Ketone bodies appear in the urine before there is any significant increase in the blood. False negatives are not uncommon as not all bacteria convert nitrates to nitrites. Bence Jones protein is a specific globulin protein, which, when found in urine, is suggestive of multiple myeloma. Named because their shape represents the cylindrical shape of the kidney’s tubular lumen. Different types of casts are so-named for the cells or cellular components they contain. Polycythemia is associated with many factors, including dehydration, acute poisoning, severe diarrhea, and pulmonary fibrosis. Reticulocyte count can be useful in determining whether an anemia is caused by bone marrow failure or by hemorrhage/hemolysis. Platelet Count Normal value: 150,000 to 300,000 Spontaneous bleeding occurs below 25,000 to 50,000. Albumin is used to transport many substances such as medications in 462 their inactive state. Alkaline Phosphatase Normal value: 30 to 85 mU per mL This enzyme is found mainly in the liver and bone and, to a lesser degree, in the intestine, kidneys, and placenta. Bilirubin can be divided into conjugated (direct) and unconjugated (indirect), and separate lab values may be given for each. Any condition causing bone demineralization or atrophy will increase calcium serum levels. Serum calcium deficiency causes neuromuscular excitability, tetany, muscle twitching, and eventually convulsions. Chloride Normal value: 98 to 109 mEq per L 465 Chloride is the primary extracellular anion and plays a major role in water balance, acid–base balance, and osmolarity of body fluids. Chlorides are depleted anytime there is a massive loss of gastrointestinal fluids or urine. Cholesterol Normal value: Less than 200 mg% Cholesterol is synthesized in all body tissues, but in extremely high amounts within the liver. As the blood levels rise, the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease increases. For borderline or slightly elevated blood glucose levels, a postprandial and/or a glucose tolerance test may be ordered. About 85% of the body’s total phosphorous is combined with calcium and stored in the 468 bone. Phosphate levels are always evaluated in relation to calcium levels because there is an inverse relationship between the two, as one goes up and the other goes down. Treatment for hyperkalemia may include administering calcium, administering sodium bicarbonate, or administering a combination of insulin and glucose. In addition to cardiac problems, potassium deficiency causes leg cramps and weakness. Protein Normal: 6 to 8 mg per dL 469 Albumin is a protein formed in the liver that helps maintain normal distribution of water in the body (colloidal osmotic pressure); it also helps to transport many blood constituents and drugs. When referring to total blood protein, it mostly refers to albumin levels because blood protein is 50%–60% albumin. The nonalbumin portion of blood protein consists of globulins, and the albumin to globulin ratio, or A/G ratio, is sometimes beneficial in diagnosing certain conditions such as multiple myeloma (Bence Jones protein is a globulin). Hyponatremia usually reflects a relative excess of body water rather than low total body sodium. Uric acid levels are used most commonly to evaluate renal failure, gout, and leukemia. Reflects the average blood sugar level for the 2- to 3-month period before the test. Better method of monitoring 473 a patient’s diabetic control; blood sugar levels alone are subject to instantaneous fluctuation. Children (more prone to dehydration) may have clear liquids up to 4 hours before surgery. Conditions that warrant prophylactic antibiotics include surgery on dirty wounds, preexisting valvular heart disease, surgery longer than 2 hours, blood transfusion, preexisting infection, and implants.
I—Intoxication suggests the common diffuse hyperplasia in patients with 771 epilepsy taking diphenylhydantoin and related drugs generic 100 mcg advair diskus with mastercard, including barbiturates cheap 100 mcg advair diskus with visa. C—Congenital or acquired malformations remind one of the gingivitis secondary to malocclusion buy advair diskus paypal, poor-fitting crowns or orthodontal appliances, and periodontal cysts, secondary to chronic periapical granuloma. A—Autoimmune and allergic diseases include the hypertrophy of thrombocytopenic purpura and the contact gingivitis from dentures, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Gingival hyperplasia in pregnancy, the giant cell granulomas of hyperparathyroidism, juvenile hypothyroidism, pituitary dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus are the most important. Approach to the Diagnosis The approach to the diagnosis is to rule out systemic disease by checking other organs by physical examination and laboratory tests (see other useful tests below). When making a referral, it is wise to have the patient return or call back with the results of the examination after seeing the specialist. In this way, one can be ready to do a further diagnostic workup should the periodontal examination be negative. In most instances this is difficult, yet there is a key to recalling the many causes. This symptom affords the opportunity to introduce yet another method of arriving at a differential diagnosis—the histopathologic method. First, analyze the tissues of the tongue and then decide what can happen to enlarge them. These tissues are the mucosa, submucosal tissue, muscle, supporting tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. Increase in size and number of the cells; infusion of serous fluids, pus, or blood; infiltration of a foreign protein or fat; and infiltration of foreign cells could cause such enlargement. It is swollen with a serous fluid in reaction to things put in the mouth such as hot food, mercury, and aspirin. Other less-well-understood sources of fluid in the mucosa are erythema multiforme and pemphigus. The submucosal and supporting tissue may be enlarged by serous fluid in angioneurotic edema, by purulent fluid in acute diffuse glossitis (usually caused by Streptococcus organisms), or by hemorrhagic fluid in leukemia, scurvy, and other hemorrhage disorders. The subcutaneous and supporting tissue can also be infiltrated by a mucoprotein in myxedema and cretinism and by amyloid in primary amyloidosis. The tongue, for example, seems large in Down syndrome, but this is caused by the fact that it hangs 774 out and appears larger than it really is. Approach to the Diagnosis The diagnosis of macroglossia depends on the presence of other physical findings (almost invariably present) associated with the disorders mentioned above, and, in most cases, the results of a systematic workup. Like convulsions (see page 108), syncope is due to a diminished supply of oxygen and glucose in the brain cell. Anything that produces hypoglycemia (see page 247) may lead to episodes of syncope, but the most common cause is overdose of insulin. It is also important to include insulinomas and overdose of oral hypoglycemic agents (Table 55). It must then be absorbed through the alveolar–capillary membrane, picked up by an adequate number of red cells, and delivered to the brain by a good functioning heart and unobstructed carotid and vertebral–basilar system. Retracing the above physiology and anatomy will develop the disease entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of syncope. Thus, mechanical obstructions of the larynx (foreign body), the bronchi, bronchioles (asthma and emphysema), or alveolar–capillary membrane (pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, or pulmonary embolism) may cause anoxia and syncope. Oxygen transport from the heart to the brain may be obstructed mechanically or functionally. Functional obstruction may result from a drop in blood pressure from carotid sinus syncope, postural hypotension (see page 253), and vasovagal syncope. Mechanical obstruction may occur at the aortic valve (aortic stenosis or insufficiency), at the carotid arteries (thrombi or plaques), or focally in the smaller arteries from ischemia due to arterial thrombi or emboli. Less commonly, mechanical obstruction may occur from ball–valve thrombi in 780 the mitral or tricuspid valve, large pulmonary emboli, or cough syncope in which poor venous return to the heart is the cause. Approach to the Diagnosis Clinical differentiation of the various forms of syncope is made by combinations of symptoms. Thus, syncope with marked sweating and tachycardia is more likely due to hypoglycemia. Transesophageal echocardiography is the procedure of choice to find a cardiac source. Epilepsy is a strong possibility in the young, whereas heart block is more likely in the aged. Therapeutic trial of hydrocortisone 20 mg/day (orthostatic, postural hypotension) 22. Therapeutic trial of an anti-arrhythmia agent (paroxysmal cardiac arrhythmia) Case Presentation #81 A 68-year-old mayor’s wife suffered sudden attacks of syncope for several years. The attacks occurred without warning, and she would fall to the floor in a stupor for a minute or two, only to recover with no postictal confusion or other symptomatology. She had been evaluated by several multispecialty clinics without a definitive diagnosis. If tachycardia results from anoxia, then the causes can be developed on the basis of the causes for anoxia, which may result from a decreased intake of oxygen, a decreased absorption of oxygen, and inadequate transport of oxygen to the tissues. In addition, anything that stimulates the heart directly, such as drugs, electrolyte imbalances, or disturbances in the cardiac conduction system, will cause tachycardia. Decreased intake of oxygen: Anything that obstructs the airway and prevents oxygen from getting to the alveoli should be recalled in this category. Bronchial asthma, laryngotracheitis, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema are most important to recall. In addition, if the “respiratory” pump (thoracic cage, intercostal and diaphragmatic muscles, and respiratory centers in the brainstem) is affected by disease, especially acutely, there will be tachycardia. Finally, the intake of oxygen may decrease if there is a low atmospheric oxygen tension. High altitude is an obvious cause, but hazardous working conditions must also be considered. Diminished perfusion of the pulmonary capillaries in pulmonary emboli and pulmonary and cardiovascular arteriovenous shunts. Disturbed ventilation/perfusion ratio in which alveoli are 783 perfused but not well ventilated, in alveoli that are not well ventilated, or in alveoli that are ventilated but not well perfused. This is typical of pulmonary emphysema, atelectasis, and many chronic pulmonary diseases. Increased tissue oxygen demands: Fever, hyperthyroidism, leukemia, metastatic malignancies, polycythemia, and certain physical or emotional demands fall into this category. Peripheral arteriovenous shunts: These shunts may occur in the popliteal fossa following a gunshot wound, in the sellar area following the rupture of a carotid aneurysm into the cavernous sinus, and in Paget disease.