By G. Kulak. Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. 2019.
Under standardized in vitro test conditions generic levitra 20 mg, Exubera delivers a specific emitted dose of insulin from the mouthpiece of the inhaler (see Table 1) purchase levitra on line amex. A fraction of the total particle mass is emitted as fine particles capable of reaching the deep lung cheap levitra 10mg visa. Up to 45% of the 1 mg blister contents, and up to 25% of the 3 mg blister contents, may be retained in the blister. Table 1: Dose Nomenclature and Information?-P Emitted dose and fine particle dose information are not intended to predict actual pharmacodynamic response. In vitro, emitted aerosol metrics are unaffected at flow rates above 10 L/min. The primary activity of insulin is regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin lowers blood glucose concentrations by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits lipolysis in the adipocyte, inhibits proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis. The insulin is absorbed as quickly as subcutaneously administered rapid-acting insulin analogs and more quickly than subcutaneously administered regular human insulin in healthy subjects and in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Mean Changes in Free Insulin Serum Concentrations ( eU/mL) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following Administration of Single Doses of Inhaled Insulin from Exubera (6 mg) and Subcutaneous Regular Human Insulin (18U)In clinical studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, after inhalation of Exubera, serum insulin reached peak concentration more quickly than after subcutaneous injection of regular human insulin, 49 minutes (range 30 to 90 minutes) compared to 105 minutes (range 60 to 240 minutes), respectively. In clinical studies, the absorption of subcutaneous regular human insulin declined with increasing patient body mass index (BMI). However, the absorption of insulin following inhalation of Exubera was independent of BMI. In a study in healthy subjects, systemic insulin exposure (AUC and Cmax) following administration of Exubera increased with dose over a range of 1 to 6 mg when administered as combinations of 1 and 3 mg blisters. In a study where the dosage form of three 1 mg blisters was compared with one 3 mg blister, Cmax and AUC after administration of three 1 mg blisters were approximately 30% and 40% greater, respectively, than that after administration of one 3 mg blister (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Because recombinant human insulin is identical to endogenous insulin, the systemic distribution and elimination are expected to be the same. Exubera, like subcutaneously administered rapid-acting insulin analogs, has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity than subcutaneously administered regular human insulin. In healthy volunteers, the duration of glucose-lowering activity for Exubera was comparable to subcutaneously administered regular human insulin and longer than subcutaneously administered rapid-acting insulin analogs (see Figure 2). Mean Glucose Infusion Rate (GIR) Normalized to GIRfor Each Subject Treatment Versus Time in Healthy VolunteersWhen Exubera is inhaled, the onset of glucose-lowering activity in healthy volunteers occurs within 10-20 minutes. The maximum effect on glucose lowering is exerted approximately 2 hours after inhalation. The duration of glucose-lowering activity is approximately 6 hours. In patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, Exubera has a greater glucose-lowering effect within the first two hours after dosing when compared with subcutaneously administered regular human insulin. The intra-subject variability of glucose-lowering activity of Exubera is generally comparable to that of subcutaneously administered regular human insulin in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. In children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) with type 1 diabetes, time to peak insulin concentration for Exubera was achieved faster than for subcutaneous regular human insulin, which is consistent with observations in adult patients with type 1 diabetes. There are no apparent differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of Exubera when comparing patients over the age of 65 years and younger adult patients. In subjects with and without diabetes, no apparent differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of Exubera were observed between men and women. A study was performed in 25 healthy Caucasian and Japanese non-diabetic subjects to compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of Exubera, versus subcutaneous injection of regular human insulin. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of Exubera were comparable between the two populations. The absorption of Exubera is independent of patient BMI. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Exubera has not been studied. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin may be necessary in patients with renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Impairment). The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Exubera has not been studied. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin may be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS ). The absorption of Exubera in pregnant patients with gestational and pre-gestational type 2 diabetes was consistent with that in non-pregnant patients with type 2 diabetes (see PRECAUTIONS ). In smokers, the systemic insulin exposure for Exubera is expected to be 2 to 5 fold higher than in non-smokers. Exubera is contraindicated in patients who smoke or who have discontinued smoking less than 6 months prior to starting Exubera therapy. If a patient starts or resumes smoking, Exubera must be discontinued immediately due to the increased risk of hypoglycemia, and an alternative treatment must be utilized (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). In clinical studies of Exubera in 123 patients (69 of whom were smokers), smokers experienced a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering action, greater maximum effect, and a greater total glucose-lowering effect (particularly during the first 2-3 hours after dosing), compared to non-smokers. In contrast to the increase in insulin exposure following active smoking, when Exubera was administered to 30 healthy non-smoking volunteers following 2 hours of exposure to passive cigarette smoke in a controlled experimental setting, insulin AUC and Cmax were reduced by approximately 20% and 30%, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of Exubera have not been studied in nonsmokers who are chronically exposed to passive cigarette smoke. Patients with Underlying Lung DiseasesThe use of Exubera in patients with underlying lung disease, such as asthma or COPD, is not recommended because the safety and efficacy of Exubera in this population have not been established (see WARNINGS ). The use of Exubera is contraindicated in patients with unstable or poorly controlled lung disease, because of wide variations in lung function that could affect the absorption of Exubera and increase the risk of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). In a pharmacokinetic study in 24 non-diabetic subjects with mild asthma, the absorption of insulin following administration of Exubera, in the absence of treatment with a bronchodilator, was approximately 20% lower than the absorption seen in subjects without asthma. However, in a study in 24 non-diabetic subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the systemic exposure following administration of Exubera was approximately two-fold higher than that in normal subjects without COPD (see PRECAUTIONS ). Administration of albuterol 30 minutes prior to administration of Exubera in non-diabetic subjects with both mild asthma (n=36) and moderate asthma (n=31) resulted in a mean increase in insulin AUC and Cmax of between 25 and 50% compared to when Exubera was administered alone (see PRECAUTIONS ). The safety and efficacy of Exubera has been studied in approximately 2500 adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The primary efficacy parameter for most studies was glycemic control, as measured by the reduction from baseline in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). A 24-week, randomized, open-label, active-control study (Study A) was conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of Exubera administered pre-meal three times daily (TID) with a single nighttime injection of Humulin? U Ultralente? (human insulin extended zinc suspension) (n = 136). The comparator treatment was subcutaneous regular human insulin administered twice daily (BID) (pre-breakfast and pre-dinner) with BID injection of NPH human insulin (human insulin isophane suspension) (n = 132). A second 24-week, randomized, open-label, active-control study (Study B) was conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of Exubera (n = 103) compared to subcutaneous regular human insulin (n = 103) when administered TID prior to meals.
Look up the numbers of various local suicide hotlines and keep them where you can find them levitra 20 mg generic. Familiarize yourself with the Internet crisis and suicide sites and bookmark the ones you like discount levitra 20mg with mastercard. Establish a close relationship with your doctor or psychiatrist discount 10mg levitra free shipping. Ask yourself: is this someone you can call on in the middle of the night? Or, if not, will someone be there to respond to your call? According to the Centers for Disease Control, 60% of all suicides are committed with a firearm. The same principle that applies to firearms applies in part to medications. The tricyclic and tetracyclic anti-depressants can be fatal in overdose. If you must keep certain medicines in the house, it may be advisable to turn them over to a loved one. You may be able to pick up subtle signals in your mind, before a full-scale crisis overwhelms you. Actually visualizing the act should set off every warning bell. All too often, a suicidal depression catches us alone and off-guard. Notwithstanding all we have to live for and all those who care for us, the brain in crisis has a perverse way of having us think the very opposite. To those of you who are in this state right now:Now call a trusted friend or loved one or a crisis hotline. Your other option is calling your psychiatrist or getting yourself to the emergency room. You are there to get help and you are there to get it NOW. Finally, take comfort in the fact that help is on the way. Your brain at the moment may not allow you to think hopeful thoughts. But it cannot keep out the knowledge that others are hoping on your behalf. This may be that precious one inch of life you can hold onto at the moment, the one that can eventually lead you to a tomorrow worth living. People with bipolar disorder or depression are at increased risk for suicide. Anyone expressing suicidal feelings needs immediate attention. Myth: "Anyone who tries to kill himself has got to be crazy. Most suicidal people suffer from the recognized mental illness of depression; but many depressed people adequately manage their daily affairs. The absence of "craziness" does not mean the absence of suicide risk. You cannot assume that because you feel something is not worth being suicidal about, that the person you are with feels the same way. Myth: "If someone is going to kill himself, nothing can stop him. The suicidal person is ambivalent - part of him wants to live and part of him wants not so much death as he wants the pain to end. It is the part that wants to live that tells another, "I feel suicidal. No matter how negative the manner and content of his talk, he is doing a positive thing and has a positive view of you. Be willing to give and get help sooner rather than later. All textbooks on depression say it should be reached as soon as possible. Unfortunately, suicidal people are afraid that trying to get help may bring them more pain; being told they are stupid, foolish, sinful, or manipulative; rejection; punishment; suspension from school or job; written records of their condition; or involuntary commitment. You need to do everything you can to reduce pain, rather than increase or prolong it. Constructively involving yourself on the side of life as early as possible will reduce the risk of suicide. Give the person every opportunity to unburden his troubles and ventilate his feelings. If you are concerned, your voice and manner will show it. Give him relief from being alone with his pain; let him know you are glad he turned to you. If you ask a despairing person this question you are doing a good thing for them; you are showing him that you care about him, that you take him seriously, and that you are willing to let him share his pain with you. You are giving him further opportunity to discharge pent up and painful feelings. If the person is having thoughts of suicide, find out how far along his ideation has progressed. If the person is acutely suicidal, do not leave him alone. Persistence and patience may be needed to seek, engage, and continue with as many options as possible. In any referral situation, let the person know you care and want to maintain contact. Respond to that part of the person and persistently seek out a mature and compassionate person with whom you can review the situation. Distributing the anxieties and responsibilities of suicide prevention makes it easier and much more effective. Most people have suicidal thoughts or feelings at some point in their lives; yet less than 2% of all deaths are suicides. Nearly all suicidal people suffer from conditions that will pass with time or with the assistance of a recovery program. There are hundreds of modest steps we can take to improve our response to the suicidal and to make it easier for them to seek help. Taking these modest steps can save many lives and reduce a great deal of human suffering. A study of Swiss women with eating disorders suggests that those who binge and purge are more likely to have attempted suicide in the past, regardless of whether they have been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or another type of eating disorder.
To avoid irritating your mouth and throat buy levitra mastercard, swallow Depakene capsules whole purchase genuine levitra line; do not chew them cheap 20 mg levitra amex. If you take 1 dose a day, take the dose you missed as soon as you remember. If you do not remember until the next day, skip the dose you missed and go back to your regular schedule. If you take more than 1 dose a day and you remember the missed dose within 6 hours of the scheduled time, take it immediately. Take the rest of the doses for that day at equally spaced intervals. Side effects are more likely if you are taking more than one epilepsy medication, and when you are taking higher doses of Depakene. Indigestion, nausea, and vomiting are the most common side effects when you first start taking this drug. If any side effects develop or change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Depakene. More common side effects of Depakene may include: Abdominal cramps, amnesia, breathing difficulty, depression, diarrhea, dimmed or blurred vision, drowsiness, hair loss, indigestion, infection, involuntary eye movements, loss or increase in appetite, nausea, nervousness, ringing in the ears, sleeplessness, swelling of the arms and legs due to fluid retention, throat inflammation, tremors, vomitingLess common or rare side effects may include: Abnormal dreams, abnormal gait, abnormal taste, aggression, anemia, anxiety, back pain, belching, bleeding, blood disorders, bone pain, breast enlargement, breast milk not associated with pregnancy or nursing, bruising, changes in behavior, chest pain, coma, confusion, constipation, cough, deafness, difficulty in speaking, dizziness, double vision, dry skin, dulled senses, ear pain and inflammation, emotional upset, excessive urination (mainly children), feeling of unwellness, fever, gas, growth failure in children, hallucinations, headache, high blood pressure, involuntary jerking, irregular heartbeat, irregular menstrual periods, itching, joint pain, lack of coordination, leg cramps, liver disease, loss of bladder control, loss of coordination, menstrual abnormalities, muscle pain, muscle weakness, nosebleed, overactivity, personality disorder, pneumonia, prickling or tingling sensation, rash, rickets (mainly children), sedation, sensitivity to light, sinus inflammation, skin eruptions or peeling, spots before the eyes, swollen glands, twitching, urinary tract infection, vaginal infection, vertigo, vomiting blood, weakness, weight loss or gainYou should not take this drug if you have liver disease or your liver is not functioning properly, or if you have had an allergic reaction to it. Remember that liver failure is possible when taking Depakene (see "Most important fact about this drug"). Your doctor should test your liver function at regular intervals. Also keep in mind the threat of damage to the pancreas (see "Most important fact about this drug"). This problem can develop rapidly, so contact your doctor immediately if you experience any symptoms. In people with a rare set of genetic abnormalities called urea cycle disorders, Depakote may adversely effect the brain. Signs of a developing problem include lack of energy, repeated attacks of vomiting, and mental changes. If you suspect a problem, see your doctor immediately. Depakene has also been known to cause a very rare but potentially fatal skin condition. Contact your doctor if you notice any changes in your skin. Some side effects are more likely if you have manic episodes or suffer from migraines. Your doctor will monitor your care closely if you have one of these conditions. Because of the potential for side effects involving blood disorders, your doctor will probably test your blood before prescribing Depakene and at regular intervals while you are taking it. Bruising, hemorrhaging, or clotting disorders usually mean the dosage should be reduced or the drug should be stopped altogether. Depakene may cause drowsiness, especially in older adults. You should not drive a car, operate heavy machinery, or engage in hazardous activity until you know how you react to the drug. Do not abruptly stop taking this medicine without first consulting your doctor. A gradual reduction in dosage is usually required to prevent major seizures. This drug can also increase the effect of painkillers and anesthetics. Before any surgery or dental procedure, make sure the doctor knows you are taking Depakene. If Depakene is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Depakene with the following:Barbiturates such as phenobarbital and SeconalBlood-thinning drugs such as Coumadin and DicumarolExtreme drowsiness and other serious effects may occur if Depakene is taken with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants such as Halcion, Restoril, or Xanax. The drug is not recommended for pregnant women unless the benefits of therapy clearly outweigh the risks. In fact, women in their childbearing years should take Depakene only if it has been shown to be essential in the control of seizures. Since Depakene appears in breast milk, nursing mothers should use it only with caution. The usual starting dose is 10 to 15 milligrams per 2. Your doctor may increase the dose at weekly intervals by 5 to 10 milligrams per 2. If stomach upset develops, the dose may be increased more slowly. The daily dose should not exceed 60 milligrams per 2. Older adults generally are prescribed reduced starting doses, and receive dosage increases more gradually than younger people. Any medication taken in excess can have serious consequences. If you suspect an overdose, seek medical help immediately. Symptoms of Depakene overdose may include: Coma, extreme drowsiness, heart problemsWe have 2548 guests and 3 members onlineIn her bipolar blog, Bipolar Vida, Cristina Fender addresses bipolar stigma, the trials of living with bipolar disorder, dealing with bipolar symptoms and treatments, and all the while trying to stay positive. Having a bipolar family member brings a lot of challenges. Get insights and advice on caring for and supporting someone with bipolar disorder plus tips for taking care of yourself. These articles focus on supporting a bipolar family member and how bipolar disorder affects the family unit. The challenges of living with bipolar disorder are not limited to those who have the disease. The family of someone with bipolar disorder will be affected in many ways. Bipolar disorder affects not only the lives of the patients themselves, but also the entire social setting in which he/she moves; marriage, family, friends, job, society at large. Dealing with a bipolar family member can be challenging. These articles provide guidelines for giving bipolar family support. Caring for someone with bipolar disorder can be overwhelming.