By Q. Ernesto. Suffolk University.
Biosystematics Taxonomy is mainly concerned with the observation of similarities and differences that exist in the morphology of a vast number of plants 100mg lady era otc. But it has now been accepted that in general purchase lady era 100mg, morphological characters alone are not the criteria for distinguishing and classifying plants from one another order lady era online from canada. In the present day classification of plants, species is taken as basic unit and it is the local breeding population. Numerous disciplines of science thus provide innumerable number of datas of all the characters of the individual or a species. This helps to clear problems concerning those plants that differ in their interrelationship, classification and evolution. It provides sufficient genetic variations that warrants separation so as to recognise them as a separate taxon based on their evolutionary progress. Variations in a species may be due to several factors such as genetic, ecological, physiological, population dynamic study and many other factors. All the evidences provided by the biosystematist are taken for analysis and considered by the classical taxonomist in order to arrive at any controversial problems that may arise during their phylogenetic classification based on their evolution of species under study. This will reveal the presence or absence of breeding barriers between taxa at various levels. Ecotype is the basic unit in biosystematics, adapted to a particular environment but capable of producing fertile hybrids with other ecotypes. Ecospecies is a group of plants comprising one or more ecotypes within the cenospecies, whose members are able to interchange their genes. Cenospecies is a group of plants representing one or more ecospecies of common evolutionary origin. Cenospecies of the same comparium are separated by genetic barriers and all hybrids between them are sterile. The informations obtained from the above mentioned studies were compared with the data obtained through comparative morphology and geographical distributions resulted in the recognition and identification of 4 a total variety or species. To conclude, biosystematic study in the contemporary and modern taxonomy plays a vital role in separating and solving some of the problems that may develop in the identification of plants at the level of species. Biosystematist provides all the necessary data in solving the real position of species that was in controversy. Binomial nomenclature The system of naming the plants on a scientific basis is known as botanical nomenclature. Before the middle of the eighteenth century, the names of plants were commonly polynomials i. The name given was Caryophyllum saxatilis folis gramineus umbellatis corymbis meaning Caryophyllum growing on rocks, having grass like leaves with umbellate corymbose inflorescence. Since lengthy names are difficult to remember and use, attempts were made to shorten these names. Although the binomial system was introduced by Gaspard Bauhin as early as 1623, it had properly been made use by Linnaeus in his book Species Plantarum. Here the first word Mangifera refers to the genus and the second word indica to the species. Hence, from the days of Linnaeus, two different kinds of plants could not have the same generic and specific names. Based on the resolutions of this meeting, the current system of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature was adapted from 1978. When new names are given to any plant, then the herbarium preparation of the same specimen with its original description is preserved in any recognized herbarium. The person who publishes the description of any plant for the first time or giving a new name to a plant is considered as author. The name of plant should bear the authors abbreviated name at the end of specific epithet. Herbaria and their uses Herbarium is a collection of pressed, dried plant specimens mounted on specified sheets, identified and arranged in the order of an approved and 6 well known system of classification. It also refers to the institution where dried plant specimens are maintained and studied. In the case of herbs, the collected plant specimens should contain both vegetative and reproductive parts. It is necessary to change these papers at regular intervals, until the plants are well dried. It consists of two boards with straps, which help in tightening the newspapers with specimens between the boards. The dried specimens are pasted on the herbarium sheets of standard size 41 cm X 29 cm. The process of attaching dried and pressed plant specimens on herbarium sheets is known as mounting of specimens. To protect these dried specimens from the attack of the insects, pesticides such as naphthalene and carbon Fig. The heavy parts of plants such as seeds and fruits are kept in packets and attached to the sheets. When a new name for a species is suggested, it is the rule that plant specimens of the same should necessarily be deposited in a recognized herbarium. These specimens are most valuable part of herbarium and they are handled with special care. If the herbarium specimens are handled with special care, they will be in good condition for a long time. It is always better to use chemicals, which 7 can repel the insects from herbarium specimens. It carries the information about the botanical name of the plant, name of the family, habit, place and date of collection and name of the person who collected the specimens. Morphological characters of the pollen remain unaltered even after storage upto nearly 200 years. Because of its importance, several herbaria have been established at the national and international centres. Bentham and Hookers classification of plants It is a natural system of classification and is based on important characters of the plants. Even today this system is being followed in India, United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries. It was proposed by two English botanists George Bentham (1800-1884) and Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911). Their system of classification was published in Genera Plantarum in three volumes and they had described 97,205 species of seeded plants in 202 orders (now referred to as families). In Bentham and Hookers classification of plants, the present day orders were referred to as cohorts and families as orders. The seeded plants are divided into three classes Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae.
The 37 optimal analysis conditions are stored in the software and are easy to access also 38 for diagnosis of only a few samples cheapest lady era. The results are in disagreement as to the prognostic 12 value of p53 mutations best lady era 100mg, especially when the immunohistochemical methods have 13 been used buy 100mg lady era visa, reviewed in (Ross et al. Studies on metastatic breast cancer have led to an 15 association between p53 mutations and resistance to hormone and adjuvant, neoad- 16 juvant and combination chemotherapy whereas other studies find no association 17 (reviewed in Ross et al. To evaluate the effect of a mutation on the protein level, an 20 extensive number of different mutations, spread along the entire gene must each be 21 associated with the impact on the protein activity. Even if the protein is detected 22 by immunohistochemistry methods, nothing is known about the activity/efficiency 23 of this protein, or if it is capable of withholding the normal functions in the cell. A number of tri-nucleotide repeats 11 are positioned in the coding region of the gene, and expansion or shrinkage of such 12 a repeat has a very dramatic effect on the protein. Especially huntingtin, the Chorea 13 Huntington disease gene, is known to expand with several hundred additional 14 repeats. Some tri-nucleotide repeats are positioned outside the coding region in 15 the 3 or 5 end of the gene. The genotypes were analyzed in 34 254 German breast cancer patients and 268 age-matched women without malignant 35 disease. The genotype frequencies 05 of F31I in the Aurora-A gene were predicted to have a functional impact, but 06 no variation was found between a breast cancer and a control population. Within this haplotype, the putative at risk genotype 09 Ile31 was more frequent in the subgroup of women carrying a higher risk of breast 10 cancer than in the low risk group (Lo et al. The genotype frequencies were significantly different 13 in the two groups and associated to the presence of lymph node metastasis (Hsiao 14 et al. One possibility could be an inherited mutation to knockout 13 the functional product from one allele in all cells of the body followed by a tumor- 14 specific deletion of the second allele. This hit may not affect the (over all) 19 function of the cell but slightly increase the instability of its genome leading to 20 secondary lesions to the genome. There are, though, several pit- 24 falls to consider using the different methods to measure the allelic imbalance in a 25 locus. One primer is labeled with a fluorescent 03 dye and the product can be analyzed via capillary electrophoresis. Software is available for calculation of the 06 ratio between the alleles from the tumor and wild type (Hansen and Justesen, 2003). The optimal sample is the micro-dissected tumor tissue 09 without traces of non-malignant cells, but the majority of studies are made on tumor 10 tissue containing a certain fraction of non-malignant cells. The cut-off level should 11 be evaluated for each tumor type and for each analyzed panel since the amount of 12 non-malignant cells may vary between different panels. The cut-off level described 13 in the literature varies from a 50% to 16% decrease in allele intensity (Gaki et al. The choice of cut-off value influences the conclusion 15 tremendously when correlated with prognostic parameters of the patient cohort. Especially in studies on the association to prognosis it is important to obtain 22 information on each tumor from each loci. If a more detailed picture is needed for a narrow region with few genes, results 35 from expression arrays may provide an answer. Tha initial screen is performed with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers along the chromosome. The exact position of a breakpoint 37 is important especially when it affects the transcription unit of a gene. No mutations or promotor hypermethylation 30 are present to affect the protein function. An incorrect position of just one marker could influence 34 the entire flanking linkage map of the genome and the target gene is overseen. As can be seen from the table 39 a few regions turn up from several studies showing the strongest association with 40 prognosis. These regions should be further analyzed in large cohorts, the regions 41 should be further narrowed to isolate the region or the gene that carries the strongest 42 prognostic potential. Tissue 15 specific arrays are analyzed via immunohistochemical techniques and provide infor- 16 mation on the protein expression level of selected proteins within each tumor. Targets providing a statistical correlation to any prognostic marker in a 24 representative cohort, from the initial whole-genome screening, can be selected for 25 the design of new arrays directed specifically towards a prognostic or predictive 26 diagnosis. The microarray technology is 36 without doubt a very powerful tool to define new prognostic markers (prognostic 37 profiles consisting of multiple up or down regulated genes), refine the tumor classi- 38 fication, generation of a personalized genetic profile useful for the determination 39 of optimal type of treatment, and eventually in developing new targets of therapy. A decrease may be due to allelic loss affecting the whole gene or 42 the promotor region, chromosomal breaks, nonsense mutations, methylation of the 43 promotor region and lesions affecting enhancer elements. Different pathways to identify new prognostic markers for the outcome of breast cancer 30 31 elements, hypomethylation of the promotor region, and gain of function mutations. Specific algorithms are 04 developed to calculate the differences in expression level of each analyzed gene 05 (spot). The tumors are thereby divided into hierarchical clusters defined by the 06 expression pattern across the chip. This classification is solely based upon the gene expression pattern with no 18 inclusion of any clinical endpoints and is designated unstructured cluster analysis. The luminal subtype and C presents 21 the worst outcome, with a short time to recurrence. These five subgroups 29 represent significantly different correlations to the established prognostic parameters 30 and to survival and illustrate how heterogeneous breast tumors are. Fifty-eight genes were differentially expressed in the two 37 groups, and the separation of the two groups of patients was 100% accurate 38 (Tsumagari et al. The patients were divided into two groups, based 43 upon their gene expression pattern, one with a short interval to distant metastasis 44 and one without relapse within the follow-up period of at least five years. Further validation of 05 the prognosis classifier was performed on 295 patients both node positive and node 06 negative. The profile turned out to be a strong independent predictive marker for 07 outcome and more efficient than standard markers based on clinical and histological 08 criteria (van de Vijver et al. A prognostic profile including 76 genes was 09 derived using 115 node negative tumors and validated via 171 new tumor samples 10 (Wang et al. Despite similar clinical material only few genes were the same 11 in the prognosis classifier profiles from these two studies. Prospective systemic-therapy clinical trails should be designed with predictive 22 marker validation in mind (Brenton et al. Consensus 24 is hopefully reached between the large number of studies carried out world-wide, 25 and patients will eventually benefit from a diagnosis and a treatment resulting in 26 increased long-term survival and lack of unnecessary treatment. From these data several chromosomal 33 abnormalities can be deciphered like aneuploidy, interstitial deletions, non- 34 reciprocal translocations, amplification of small regions like insertions or double 35 minutes (Albertsen et al. By screening of 14 breast cancer cell lines, 24 independent amplicons, 06 each spanning from 0. This comparison 14 has in addition led to speculations on the connection between different chromosome 15 lesions and the pathway leading from a normal somatic cell to the different stages 16 of malignant growth and proliferation. The highly differentiated low-grade tumors (G1) show few 22 alterations as gain of 1q, 8q and a loss of 16q, and there is a clear association 23 between a high number of genomic alterations and a poor prognosis of the disease 24 (see Table 1). Abnormal changes in the methylation pattern 32 of a cell may cause severe inherited diseases, and is found implicated in (all) cancers 33 and in aging.
Monoplar diathermy Only one (the active) electrode is connected to the cutting/coagulating device order discount lady era on line. The electric current is passing through the patient between this active electrode and the indifferent (neutral) electrode which is located out of the surgical territory and touching a large skin surface generic 100mg lady era amex. This elecrode is placed at the time of positionning the patient on operating table safe 100 mg lady era. Bipolar diathermy In bipolar diathermy, two electrodes are combined in the instrument (e. Local effectrosurgery Electrocoagulation: a needle or disc touches the tissue directly, and burns the tissue (a grayish discharge). Electrofulguration: lighting or spark: he needle does not touch the tissue directly (it is 12 mm away). Laser surgery 62 Laser surgery is based on the emission of radiation by light amplification through a tube at a microscopic level. Use: coagulation and vaporization (carbon or steam) in delicate and fine tissues (eyes: retina detachment repair, brain, spinal cord, or gastrointestinal tract). Hemostasis with chemical and biological methods Characteristics: Easy handling, quick absorption, non-toxic, and local effects without systemic consequences. Main indications: small superficial skin varices (injection into the veins) and esophagus varix sclerotization (given to the proximity of the varix). Absorbable gelatin: Gelfoam, Lyostypt or Spongostan: powder or compressed-pad form. Absorbable collagen: Collastat: This is in the form of a hemostatic sponge, applied dry to the oozing or bleeding site. Its use is contraindicated when there is an infection or in areas where blood has pooled. Microfibrillar collagen: Avitene: This is a powder-like, absorbable material from a bovine source; it is applied dry. It functions as a hemostatic agent only when applied directly to source of bleeding. It is applied to oozing surfaces, including bone and areas of bleeding difficult to reach. Oxidized cellulose: Oxycel, Surgicel: made of cellulose, able to adsorb a large amount of blood, with blood make an artificial thrombus. Oxytocin: This is a hormone produced by pitutary gland, but is also prepared synthetically. Epinephrine: This hormone is secreted by the adrenal gland, is also prepared synthetically. Novel hemostatic agents: Indications: External bleeding where the conventional pressure dressings fail. HemCon: It is available as a chitosan-based product, made from shrimp shell polysaccharide + vinegar. Preparations for an operation Salus aegroti suprema lex esto = The well-being of the patient is the most important law. We can think of increased surgical morbidity (and accompanying cardiacvascular, hepatic, and renal diseases) as the age of the patient is increasing. Surgical indications, contraindications and risks Indications Proper evaluation of the surgical disease and risks: - Vital indications: These are involved in the case of life-saving procedures. The patient can be treated only with an operation (100% mortality without operation). Example: rupture of an abdominal aorta aneurysm - Absolute indications: These are involved in urgent procedures. Contraindications In the cases of vital and absolute indications: only in moribund patients. In the case of relative indication: decompensated accompanying diseases, does the surgery improve the survival? Surgical risks Surgical risks = risks of surgery itself + anesthesiological risks. The preoperative examinations must answer the questions of both surgeon and anesthesiologist, allowing them to give their agreed opinion in writing. Medium-risk surgery: Surgical interventions of medium severity can be classified here (the expected blood loss is less than 1000 ml), e. Operations in which 2 body cavities are opened at the same time are runnig with the highest risks. Oncological patients own problems - chemotherapeutic agents - radiotherapy (local inflammation) - decreased function of the immune system - paraneoplastic syndromes e. To have a safe general anesthesia, the patient should avoid eating (fasting 6 hours prior to surgery). Preoperative nutritional therapy First, you should consider the natural oral feeding. If it is not possible, then the nasogastric, duodenal or jejunal tubes are the most appropriate ways of feeding. The burned, tumorous, polytraumatized, and septic patients need the highst amount of energy. Slag deprivation - Diet: liquids for 2-3 days or a low-residue diet - Enema: In the case of major abdominal surgeries (or those operations which involve the intestinal system), there is a need to make the intestinal tract empty. Urinary catheter 67 It is needed in the case of long-lasted operations which are running with loss of a large amount of fluids. Thrombosis prophylaxis - Drugs: - Heparin derivatives: Na-heparin, Ca-heparin, low molecular weight heparins - Platelet aggregation inhibitors (e. Syncumar) - Physical: - early mobilization - compression (elastic bandages) - bed-side bicycle - keeping the lower extremities at a high level Psychic preparartion That is natural for the patient to fear of the operation and its unwanted consequences. He/she should carefully evaluate the indications and contraindications and choose the best possible intevention. Laparotomy on the anterior abdominal wall The direction of the incision can be: verical, transverse, or oblique. Vertical incisions: - upper, lower, middle, or total median laparotomy - paramedian laparotomy - vertical transrectal laparotomy - pararectal laparotomy Transverse incisions: - horizontal transrectal laparotomy - Pfannensteil incision Oblique incisions: - McBurney-incision - inguinal transmuscular laparotomy - paracostal laparotomy (Kocher incision) - subcostal laparotomy Vertical incisions Upper median laparotomy The incision is made from xyphoid process to the umbilicus. Advantages: insures a quick and wide exposure, quickly and easily can be elongated and closed. The advantages and disadvantages are the same as those for an upper median laparotomy. Advantage: from a small incision we can inspect both the upper and the lower part of the abdominal cavity. Total median laparotomy The incision is made from xyphoid process to the syphysis pubis. It gives an excellent exposure but injures the statistic of the abdominal wall significantly. It also makes the postoperative coughing difficult, increases the danger of pneumonia, and can cause constipation.
The complex interaction of factors that determine this response involves a stimulus (experi 2013 Morales-Gonzlez et al trusted 100mg lady era. This proliferation depends on the hepatocytes order lady era online now, epithelial bile cells buy lady era 100 mg with amex, Kupffer cells, and Ito cells. The mechanisms of hepatic growth have been studied in detail in experimental models. In the latter, regeneration is induced whether by tissue resection (partial hepatectomy) or by death of the hepatocytes (toxic damage). Evidence that there is a humoral growth factor of the hepatocyte has been observed in animal models and in patients with liver disease from the 1980s. Ethanol On being ingested, alcohol (also called ethanol) produces a series of biochemical reactions that lead to the affectation of numerous organs involving economy, having as the endpoint the development of hepatic diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Despite that much is known about the physiopathological mechanisms that trigger ethanol within the or ganism, it has been observed that a sole mechanism of damage cannot fully explain all of the adverse effects that ethanol produces in the organism or in one organ in particular. A factor that is referred as playing a central role in the many adverse effects that ethanol exerts on the organism and that has been the focus of attention of many researchers is the excessive generation of molecules called free radicals, which can produce a condition known as oxidative stress, which triggers diverse alterations in the cells biochemical processes that can finally activate the mechanism of programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. Of particular importance for the objective of this chapter is the focus on a particular class of free radicals that are oxygen derivatives, because these are the main chemical entities that are produced within the organism and that affect it in general. Ethanol metabolism Ethanol is absorbed rapidly in the gastrointestinal tract; the surface of greatest adsorption is the first portion of the small intestine with 70%; 20% is absorbed in the stomach, and the re mainder, in the colon. Under optimal conditions, 80-90% of the ingested dose is completely absorbed within 60 minutes. Gender difference is a factor that modifies the distributed etha nol volume; this is due to its hydrosolubility and to that it is not distributed in body fats, which explains why in females this parameter is found diminished compared with males. Ethanol is eliminated mainly (> 90%) by the liver through the enzymatic oxidation path way; 5-10% is excreted without changes by the kidneys, lungs, and in sweat [14, 30]. Liver regeneration and ethanol Ethanol is a well known hepatotoxic xenobiotic because hepatotoxicity has been well docu mented in humans as well as in animals. Although aspects concerning the pathogenesis of liver damage have been widely studied, it is known that liver regeneration restores the func tional hepatic mass after hepatic damage caused by toxins. Suppression of the regenerating capacity of the liver by ethanol is the major factor of liver damage. Although the effects of acute or chronic administration of ethanol on the proliferative capacity of the liver to re generate itself has been studied, the precise mechanism by which ethanol affects hepatocel lular function and the regenerative process are poorly explained. Liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats represents an ideal model of con trolled hepatocellular growth. This surgical procedure has been sufficiently employed to study the factors than can be implicated in the growth of the liver. It has indicated that the hepatocytes enter into a state denominated priming to thus begin replication and response to growth factors, that is, which range from the quiescent to the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. The pro gression of hepatic cells requires the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases that are regulat ed by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This spatial configuration generates in the molecule distinct physical and chemical properties such as heightened reactivity and diminished life time, respectively. This instability confers on these physical avidity for the uptake of an electron of any other molecule in its ambit (stable molecules), causing the affected structure to remain unstable with the purpose of reaching its electrochemical stability. Once the free radical has achieved trapping the electron that it requires for pairing with its free electron, the stable molecule that cedes the latter to it in turn becomes a free radical, due to its remaining with an un paired electron, this initiating a true chain reaction that destroys our cells. The main sources are enzymes associated with the metabolism of arachi donic acid, such as cycloxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P-450. The presence and ubiquity of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) that eliminate secon dary products in a univalent pathway in aerobic cells suggest that the superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide are important secondary products of oxidative metabolism. These reduc tive processes are accelerated by the presence of trace metals such as iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and of specific enzymes such as monoxygenases and certain oxidases. If lipids are involved (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the structures rich in these are damaged, such as the cell membranes and the lipoproteins. Antioxidants Halliwell defines an antioxidant as all substances that on being found present at low concen trations with respect to those of an oxidizable substrate (biomolecule), delays or prevents the oxidation of this substrate. Of the numerous classifications of antioxidants, it is recommended to adopt that which divides these into the following: exogenes or antioxidants that enter through the alimentary chain, and endogenes that are synthesized by the cell. Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene act within the liposol uble medium of the cell and their absorption and transport are found to be very much linked with that of the lipids. First level This consists of editing univalent oxygen reduction through enzymatic systems capable of effecting consecutive tetravalent reduction without releasing the partially reduced interme diaries; this is achieved with great effectiveness by the cytochrome-oxidase system of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is responsible for more than 90% of oxygen reduc tion in the human organism. Second level This is constituted of enzymes specialized in the uptake of the superoxide anion radical (O 2 ). In the cells of the eukaryotic organisms, there are two of these: one is cytoplasmatic, and the other is mitochondrial. Third level This is conferred by a group of specialized enzymes on neutralizing hydrogen peroxide. Among these is catalase, which is found in the peroxisomes and which catalyzes the dismu tation reaction. Also in mammals, glutathione peroxidase (a cytoplasmic enzyme that contains selenium) is the most important. Fourth level Here the hydroxyl radical produced in the Haber-Weiss cycle can neutralized by vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol, which is an effective antioxidant and that due to its hydrophobicity is found in biological membranes in which its protection is particularly important. Fifth level Once the molecular damage is produced, there is a fifth level of defense that consists of re pair. Antioxidants and their role in hepatoprotection The term antioxidant was originally utilized to refer specifically to a chemical product that prevented the consumption of oxygen ; thus, antioxidants are defined as molecules whose function is to delay or prevent the oxygenation of other molecules. The importance of anti oxidants lies in their mission to end oxidation reactions that are found in the process and to impede their generating new oxidation reactions on acting in a type of sacrifice on oxidating themselves. Some of the best- known exogenous antioxidant substances are the following: carotene (provitamin A); reti nol (vitamin (A); ascorbic acid (vitamin C); tocopherol (vitamin E); oligoelements such as selenium; amino acids such as glycine, and flavonoids such as silymarin, among other organ ic compounds [46, 36]. Historically, it is known that the first investigations on the role that antioxidants play in Bi ology were centered on their intervention in preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fats, which is the main cause of rancidity in food. However, it was the identification of vitamins A, C, and E as antioxidant substances that revolutionized the study area of antioxidants and that led to elucidating the importance of these substances in the defense system of live or ganisms. Due to their solubilizing nature, antioxidant compounds have been divided into hydrophil ics (phenolic compounds and vitamin C) and lipophilics (carotenoids and vitamin E). Carotenoids are deactivators of electronically excited sensitizing molecules, which are involved in the generation of radicals and individual oxygen, and the antioxidant activity of vitamin A is characterized by hydro gen donation, avoiding chain reactions. The antioxidant defense system is composed of a group of substances that, on being present at low concentrations with respect to the oxidizable substrate, delay or significantly prevent oxygenation of the latter. Antioxidant action is one of the sacrifices of its own molecular integrity in order to avoid alterations in the remainder of vitally functioning or more important molecules. This is the reason that, for several years, diverse researchers have been carrying out experi mental studies that demonstrate the importance of the role of antioxidants in protection and/or hepatic regeneration in animals.