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The pauciarticular group (12 patients) most closely matched normal expectations for dietary intake proven 160 mg malegra fxt plus. The systemic disease group (8 patients) was found to be short for age and above average in the weight for height index cheap malegra fxt plus. There was a less than the recommended caloric intake for age and low circulating levels of albumin cheap malegra fxt plus 160 mg on-line, retinol binding protein, vitamin C, and zinc. Many children in the polyarticular group (14 patients) were short for age with accompanying deficiencies in vitamin A, C, and E levels and lowered zinc levels. Influence of chronic inflammation on these findings is not fully understood and discrepancies between intake and certain nutrient levels may reflect alterations in the requirements, absorption, or utilization of these nutrients in the presence of chronic inflammation (100). Also, the mean daily intake of zinc and copper did not differ between patients with active or inactive disease. As an example, flexion contractures of the lower extremities make accurate height measurement difficult to obtain, which will then affect the weight-to-height index. Of these patients, 18% had height at or below the fifth percentile for age, 15% had weight at or below the fifth percentile for age, and 9% had weight for height at or below the fifth percentile. It was undetermined whether these findings were the result of undernutrition or disease activity. Truncal obesity occurs in iatrogenic Cushings syndrome as a result of the redis- tribution of fat predominantly to subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen, upper back (buffalo hump), and the face (moon facies). Limiting salt intake while observing a healthy diet may help to reduce weight gain but in reality this is often difficult to achieve. Combined with characteristic purple striae, hirsutism and acne, the body appearance changes dramat- ically and these cosmetic changes often become a major issue, particularly in the adolescent. Osteopenia is defined as low bone mass for skeletal age and stage of sexual maturation. Osteoporosis is the parallel loss of bone mineral content and matrix and is defined in young adults as a bone mineral density less than 2. However, there are no accepted definitions for osteopenia and osteoporosis in childhood (74,75). Localized osteopenia is commonly identified with plain X-ray studies early in the disease process, whereas generalized osteopenia and osteoporosis develop later as disease progresses and results in an increased risk for the development of pathological fractures in the vertebrae and long bones (29,74,75). Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activities reduce the risk for developing both conditions, whereas active inflammatory disease and chronic glucocorticosteroid use increase the risk, particularly in children with early-onset disease. Occasionally, a nasogastric tube is needed for enteral feeding of the malnourished child or total parenteral nutrition for the medically unstable patient. Other factors that need to be considered in patients with decreased intake include depression, eating disorders, neglect and abuse, and socioeconomic factors. Parents often implement unconventional dietary regimens without consulting a physician. Not only do such practices cause an economic burden, they also may be injurious and interfere with standard therapy (82,109). Sometimes, parents implement such regimens in combination with conventional therapy, but on occasion these remedies are the only therapy provided to the child, and then lead to significant adverse effects (109). Other than scattered case reports, there are no published population-based studies that estimate the prevalence of food-related chronic arthritis in the pediatric age group (82). The efficacy and safety of bispho- sphonates in children are unknown and require further evaluation with randomized, controlled, long-term trials. Muscu- loskeletal adverse effects include transient skeletal pain, epiphyseal and metaphyseal radiologic sclerosis in growing bones, and mandibular osteonecrosis. Other supplements that provide clear benefits include multivitamins and folic acid. Patients receiving methotrexate require folic acid supplementation to minimize the occurrence of oral ulcers. Control of underlying chronic inflammation usually corrects the anemia of chronic disease, however, iron supplementation may be beneficial if iron-deficiency anemia coexists (i). Occasionally, recombinant human erythropoietin is considered for the treatment of anemia in rheumatic diseases (116). A dietician should be part of the rheumatology team and should be consulted when there is concern about nutritional deficits or the presence of other medical disorders that require dietary modifications. Adequate daily caloric intake is essential to ensure a healthy nutritional status. However, there may be potential benefits for increased fish intake and fish-oil supplements but further studies are needed. Supplementation with daily requirements of vitamins or other nutrients may be required to ensure adequate intake of the daily age recommendations. Swimming and nonweight-bearing exercises can improve range of motion and function of joints, restore cardiovascular fitness, facilitate weight loss in overweight patients, and enhance muscle tone and facilitate increased lean body mass. Discussing medication comprehensively with patients and parents helps them to anticipate and minimize side effects. Folic acid supplementation is useful to decrease the side effects of methotrexate such as oral ulcerations, nausea, and vomiting. Limiting the development of osteoporosis in patients receiving high-dose corticos- teroids may be accomplished by ensuring the needed daily requirements of vitamin D and calcium. Early diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis is essential for treatment and prevention of morbid complications such as vertebral compression fractures. Anemia may be corrected with adequate treatment of the underlying disorder but iron supplementation for coexisting iron-deficiency anemia should be considered. Counseling for depression and eating disorders should be considered in patients with anorexia or obesity. It is vital to address the risk of unconventional dietary remedies, socioeconomic status, and/or issues of child neglect or abuse. The association of antinuclear antibodies with the chronic iridocyclitis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Stills disease). The development of classification criteria for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Proposal for the development of classification criteria for idiopathic arthritides of childhood. Revision of the proposed classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Durban, 1997. International League of Associations for Rheuma- tology Classification of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Second Revision, Edmonton, 2001. Patterns of joints involvement at onset differentiate oligoarticular juvenile psoriatic arthritis from pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The early pattern of joint involvement predicts disease progression in children with oligoarticular (pauciarticular) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with antinuclear antibody-positive juvenile idiopathic arthritis constitute a homogeneous subgroup irrespective of the course of joint disease. Methotrexate for resistant chronic uveitis in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Incidence and outcomes of uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesis of the literature.
Patients with primary syphilis who stayed for more than two week cannot be reinfected by a challenge purchase malegra fxt plus 160 mg amex. Widespread mucocutaneous lesions involving the oral cavity buy malegra fxt plus canada, plams of the hands and soles of the feet characterize it purchase malegra fxt plus toronto. Nummular syphilitidis:- It is coin-like lesions involving the face and perineum Generalized lymphadenopathy and the uncommon swelling of epithrochlear lymph nodes have long been associated with syphilis. They occur in most organs but in skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, Joints and testis. In the liver, scarring as a result of gummas may cause a distinctive hepatic lesion known as hepar lobatum. The lesions include aortitis, aortic value regurgitation, aortic aneurysm, and coronary artery ostia stenosis. The proximal aorta affected shows a tree -barking appearance as a result of medial scarring and secondary atherosclerosis. Endartereritis and periaortitis of the vasa vasoum in the wall of the aorta, is responsible for aortic lesions and in time, this may dilate and form aneurysm and eventually rupture classically in the arch. Treponemas do not invade the placental tissue or the fetus until the fifth month of gestation (since immunologic competence only commences then) syphilis causes late abortion, still birth or death soon after delivery or It may persist in latent forms to become apparent only during childhood or adult life. In primary and secondary stages, the fetus is heavily infected and may die of hydrops in utero or shortly after birth. After maternal second stage, the effects of congenital syphilis are progressively less severe. Malaria Malaria is caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite called Plasmodium species and plasomodium Faliprium is the worldwide infections that affect 100 million people and kill 1 to 1. Falciparum): Infected humans produce gametocytes that mosquitoes acquire on feeding. Within these insects body, the organism produces sporozites, which the mosquito transmits to human when it feeds 177 Malarial sporozites after being released in the blood within minutes attach to a serum protein thrombosroridin and properidine located on the basolateral surface of hepatocytes. Repeated cycles of parasitemia occur with subsequent ruptures of these cells with resultant clinical manifestations such as chills, fever etc. Morphology: Spleen enlarged upto 1000gm (normally 150grams) and this splenomegaly can be attributed to increased phagocytosis in splenic reticuloendothelial cells in chronic malaria. Pigmented phagocytes may be dispersed through out bone marrow, lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissues and lungs. These patients manifest diffuse symmetric encephalopathy; brain vessels are plugged with parasitized red cells. Hypoglycemia- result from failure of hepatic gluconeogenesis & glucose consumption by the host and the parasite lactic acidosis -due to anaerobic glycolysis, non cardiogenic pulmonary edema, renal impairment, anemias etc 178 P. In other types of malaria only subpopulations of erythrocytes are parasitized, and thus low level parasitemias and more modest anemias occur. The process of cytoadhernce and rosetting are central to the pathogenesis of falcparum malaria in the other three " benign" malarias sequestrations does not occur and all stages of parasites development are evident on peripheral blood smears. Malaria in pregnancy In pregnancy, malaria may be associated with hypoglycemia, fetal distress syndrome and low birth weight. Malaria in children Most of the estimated 1-3 million persons who die of falciparum malaria each year are young African children. Convulsion, coma, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis and severe anemia are relatively common. Transfusion malaria Malaria can be transmitted by blood transfusion, needle -stick injury, sharing of needles by infected drug addicts, or organ transplants. The incubation period is short because there is no pre-erythrocytic stage of development. Leishmaniasis Definition: Chronic inflammatory disease of skin, mucous membranes or viscera caused by obligate intracellular Kinetoplastid protozoal parasites (Leishmania species) transmitted through infected sand fly. Cutaneous leishmaniasis Localized single ulcer on exposed skin (slowly expanding and irregular borders, usually heals within 6 months by involution. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis Lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis resembles lepromatous leprosy nodules. The lesions do not ulcerate but contain vast aggregates of foamy macrophages filled with leishmania. The patients are usually anergic not only to Leshmania but also to other skin antigens and the disease respond poorly to therapy. Schistosomiasis It is the most important helmenthic disease infecting 200 million people & killing 250,000 annually. Ghycocalyx that protect the organism from osmotic is shed but it activates complement by alternative pathway. Schistosoms migrate into peripheral vasculature transverse to the lung and little in the portal venous system where they develop into adult male and female schistosomes. Females produce hundreds of eggs per day around which granulmas and fibrosis form the major manifestation in schistosomiasis. Some schist some eggs are passed from the portal veins through the intestinal wall into the colonic lumen are shed with the feces and released into fresh water, form to miracidia that infect the snail to complete the life cycle. Resistance to reinfection by schistosomes after treatment correlates with IgE levels whereas, eosinophile major basic proteins may destroy larvae schistsomula. Eggs release factors that stimulate lymphocytes to secrete a lymphokine that stimulate fibroblast proliferation and portal fibrosis the exuberant fibrosis which is out of proportion to the injury caused by the eggs and granucoma, occurs in 5% of persons infected with schistosomes and cause severe portal hypertension esophageal varicoses and ascites - the hallmark of severe schistosomiasis. The liver is darken by regurgitated pigments from the schistosome gut which like malaria pigment are iron negative and accumulate in kuffer cells and splenic macrophages. Japanicum) Colonic pseudopolyps Liver surface is bumpy and its cut section shows granuloma and wide spreading fibrous portal enlargement without distortion of the intervening parenchyma. Schistome eggs diverted to the lungs through portal collateral may produce granulomatous pulmonary arteritis with intimal hyperplasia progressive arterial obstruction and ultimately heart failure (cor pulmonale). Patients with hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis have also increased frequency of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis or membranous glomerulonepritis in which 182 glomeruli contain deposits of immunoglobulins and compliments but rarely schstosomal antigens. Latter the granuomas calcify and develop a sandy appearance and in severe cases, it causes concentric rim on the wall of the bladder forming calcified bladder on x- rays films. When the urinary inflammation involves the ureteral orifices, it causes obstructive hydronephrosis and chronic pylonehphritis. Urinary schistosomiasis is also associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder that is commonly seen in Egypt. Fungal Infections There are 100,000 known fungi and only few infect humans mostly opportunistically. Only few are involved in human diseases because most fungi are destroyed by cell-mediated immune responses however, humoral immunity plays little or no role. Predisposing factors for fungal infections include: Corticosteroid administration, acquired or congenital immunodeficiency states, defects in neutrophillic and macrophage functions Fungal infections are divided into superficial and deep fungal infections (mycosis). Candidiasis (Moniliasis) Normally found in mouth, skin and gastrointestinal tracts. It affects locally the skin, nail and mucous membranes and it grows best in warm, moist surface and cause vaginitis, diaper rash & oral trush.
Inhibition of acidification has been associated with urase secreted by the mycobacteria malegra fxt plus 160mg overnight delivery. First order 160mg malegra fxt plus amex, the organisms are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages and transported by these cells to hilar lymph nodes purchase 160 mg malegra fxt plus with mastercard. Nave macrophages are unable to kill the mycobacteria, thus they multiply and lyse these host cells, infect other macrophages and sometimes disseminate through blood to other parts of the lung and elsewhere in the body. Lyses of these macrophages results in the formation of caseating granuloma and direct toxicity to the mycobacteria may contribute to the necrotic caseous centers. The primary infection of sub-pleural lesion, the intervening macrophage reactions within accompanying lymphangitis and the hilar lymph nodes caseous lesions is called primary complex (often called a Ghon focus). T-cell mediated immune response induces hypersensitivity to the organisms and controls 95% of primary infection. This is associated with progressive fibrosis and calcification of persistent caseous debris. Moreover, most bacilli die but few remain viable for years until the persons immune response fails. However, if the infected person is immunologically immature, as in a young child or immunocompromized (eg. Such persons lack the capacity to coordinate integrated hypersensitivity and cell- mediated immune responses to the organism and thus often lack the capacity to contain the infection. Granulomas are poorly formed or not formed at all, and infection progresses at the primary site in the lung, the regional lymph nodes or at multiple sites of disseminations. Progressive primary tuberculous pneumonia: commonly seen in children less than five years of age but it ours in adults as well in those with suppressed or defective immunity. Subpleural focus may discharge bacilli or antigen into the pleural cavity resulting in the development of pleural effusion. Hilar or mediastinal groups of lymph nodes enlargement with caseous necrosis that may result in: a. Obstruction of the bronchus by the enlarged lymph nodes leading to lobar collapse. The caseous hilar lymph node may penetrate the bronchial wall and resulting in rupture of the wall with pouring of caseous materials into the bronchus hence, tuberculosis broncho-pneumonia ensues. The caseous materials may be disseminated to other parts of the body via blood streams. Miliary tuberculosis It refers to disseminated sites that produce multiple, small yellow nodular lesions in several organs. Intestinal primary infection The primary complex is similar to that of the lungs the initial site may be in the gum with lymphatic spread of bacilli to the cervical lymph nodes the commonest location for the primary lesion is the illocaecal region with local mesenteric node involvement. Lymph nodes Tuberculous lymph adenitis is the most common type of extra pulmonary tuberculosis that frequently involves the cervical groups of lymph nodes with enlargement, and subsequent periadenitis followed by matting and eventual ulcerations if left untreated. Skin is also involved in various forms of tuberculosis Post -primary (secondary) tuberculosis Conventionally the term post-primary tuberculosis is used for lung infections occurring 5 years or more after the primary infection. The commonest sites for post primary tuberculosis are the posterior or apical segment of the upper lobe and the superior segment of the lower lobe and their predilection for the anatomy location is due to good ventilation. Hypersensitivity reaction is well- developed and it thus, restricts the granulomatous reactions locally. Pulmonary and bronchial arteries around caseous cavities are occluded by endarteritis obliterans where the wall of the artery may weaken resulting in aneurysm formation (mycotic aneurism) that may occasionally rupture and cause hemoptosis. Certain tissues are relatively resistant to tuberculous infection, so it is rare to find tubercles in the heart, skeletal muscle, thyrord and pancreas. This results in less well-formed granulomas, and more frequently necrotic material that contain more abundant acid-fast organisms histologically. These infections are usually widely disseminated throughout the reticuloendothelial systems causing enlargement of involved lymph nodes, liver and 10 spleen. The organisms are present in large numbers as many as 10 organism per gram of tissue. Leprosy Definiton: Leprosy or Hansen disease is a slowly progressive infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the skin and peripheral nerves and resulting mainly in deformity, paralysis and ulceration. Pathogenesis: The bacillus is acid fast, obligate intracellular organism that does not grow in culture and 0 it grows best at 32-34 C of the temperature of human skin. The bacilli thus produce either potentially destructive granulomas or by interference with the metabolism of cells. The bacilli are taken by alveolar macrophages; disseminate through the blood but grows only in relatively cool tissues of the skin and extremities. Two forms of the disease occur depending on whether the host mounts a T-cell mediated immune response (tuberculoid leprosy) or the host is anergic (lepromatous leprosy). The polar forms are relatively stable but the borderline forms (border line-tuberculoid, borderline-borderline, and borderline-lepromatous) are unstable without treatment. Patients with tuberculoid leprosy form granuloma with few surviving bacteria (paucibacillary disease). Antibody production is not protective in lepromatous leprosy and rather the formation of antigen antibody complexes in lepromatous leprosy leads to erythema nodosum leprosum, a life threatening vasculitis, and glomerulonephrits 173 Because of the diffuse parasite filled lesions lepromatous leprosy is more infectious than those with tuberculoid leprosy. The vital organs and the central nervous system are rarely affected presumably because the core temperature is too high for the growth of M. Syphilis Definition: Syphilis is a systemic infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidium, which is transmitted mainly by direct sexual intercourse (venereal syphilis) and less commonly via placenta (congenital syphilis) or by accidental inoculation from the infectious materials. Pallidum spirochetes cannot be cultured but are detected by silver stains, dark field examination and immunofluorescence technique. Pathogenesis: The organism is delicate and susceptible to drying and does not survive long outside the body. Morphology: Syphilis is classified into three stages Primary syphilis (chancre): Chancre appears as a hard, erythematous, firm; painless slightly elevated papule on nodule with regional lymph nodes enlargements. Common sites are Prepuce / scrotum in men-70%,Vulva or cervix in females -50% The chancre may last 3-12 weeks. Morphology: Oral trush & vaginitis are superficial lesions characterized by white patches (or fluffy membrane) Cutaneous eczematous lesion: Seen in moist area such as between fingers, & toes and in inguinal areas, inflamammary folds and ano-genital regions. These lesions may contain acute and chronic inflammations with micro abscesses but in their chronic states granulomatous inflammations may develop. Many organs may be involved for examples include kidney with micro abscesses in 90%, and right side candidal endocarditis. Pathogenesis: Found in soil and droppings of birds (peogons): Three factors associated with virulence 1) Capsular polysaccharides 2) Resistant to killing by alveolar macrophages 3) Production of phenol oxidase, which consumes host epinephrine oxidase system. This enzyme consumes host epinephrines in the synthesis of fungal melanin thus, preventing the fungus from epinephrine oxidase system C. Morphology: Lung is the primary site of localization with minor or asymptomatic presentation; here solitary granulomatous lesions may appear.
In fact order 160mg malegra fxt plus with amex, if 43 they need less energy buy malegra fxt plus 160 mg cheap, lower vitamin and mineral intake is also required cheap malegra fxt plus 160mg free shipping. This fact could be associated with increased cell survival and improved 25 physiology of human body, offering better health outcomes during aging. Their functions and biochemical 28 and physiological roles are summarized in Table 3, whereas their common food 29 sources are listed in Table 4. Calcium 34 is important to bones and teeths and participates of nervous transmission, muscle 35 contraction, and blood clothing (Somer, 2003). In recent years researchers have been 36 discovered that calcium decreases hyperproliferation of colon cancer cells(Lipkin, 37 1999; Kelloff et al. Copper deficiency is common feature in diabetes mellitus patients, 03 and its supplementation should be feasible (Pedrosa and Cozzolino, 1999). Iodine is the active center of the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) that 09 regulates energy metabolism, physical and mental development and reproductive 10 functions (Somer, 2003). Hypothyroidism and goitre are consequences of iodine 11 deficiency (Ramalingaswami, 1992). Iron is the active center of hemeproteins such 12 as hemoglobin (erythrocyte), myoglobin (muscle), and mitochondrial cytochromes 13 (Richard and Roussel, 1999). Iron-deficiency anemia severily affects work capacity, 14 aerobic and brain functions (Lukaski, 2004). Fluoride 16 inactivates some of these acids, reducing dental caries, and also helps bone miner- 17 alization. Acid-base equilibrium of 29 blood and fluids, muscle anabolism, and energy production are also performed by 30 phosphorus. Potassium, another 33 important electrolyte, controls nervous transmission and induces pos-contraction 34 muscle relaxation, decreasing cardiac frequency (Thaler et al. It controls antibody production by B cells 37 and phagocytic functions (Hughes, 2000). Higher selenium status is associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer, 41 since selenium acts as a potent antioxidant, able to induce tumor cell death and 42 inhibit new angiogenesis in tumoral tissues (Nve, 2002). Zinc 28 deficiency is also associated with decreased B and T cells functions, with impairment 29 in cytokine responses and macrophage activation, and compromise of epithelials 30 physiology (Berger, 2002). Nutritional modulation of these 40 cell changes should consider the following biochemical-pharmacology approaches 41 (or cell targets)(Ames et al. Other studies have 04 been confirmed the protective effects of dietary antioxidants, including phyto- 05 chemicals (flavonoids and phenolics), on the risk of neurodegenerative disorders 06 (Ferrari, 2004). Blood 22 cholesterol lowering effects represents another important mechanism to protect 23 against cardiovascular diseases (Ferrari, 2004; Ferrari and Torres, 2003). Within the cardiovascular protective 36 mechanisms of flavonoids (from grapes and red wine), inhibition of platelet aggre- 37 gation, increasing of nitric oxide synthesis and lowering of superoxide production 38 seems to be important (Freedman et al. Then, stability 27 of respiratory chain requires adequate levels of iron and ubiquinone. Important 28 mitochondrial disorders and associated disorders are listed in Table 6. Coenzyme Q10, but not vitamin E, 29 had prolonged life span of Caenorhabiditis elegans, effect mediated by apoptosis 30 inhibition and possibly in situ superoxide scavenging action (Ishii et al. Coenzyme Q10 content of some foods 02 Food Ubiquinone content (mg/100g) 03 04 Soy oil 92 05 Colza seed oil 73 06 Mackerel fish 43 Sesame seed oil 32 07 Meat 32 08 Peanut 27 09 Pork meat 25 10 Fish filet 24 11 Chicken 21 Nuts 19 12 13 Source: Duthie (1993). However, the same authors reported increased mitochondrial activities 22 and lipid peroxidation in the liver. However, other authors have found mitochondrial 23 failure during liver aging in vitamin E-deficient rats (Armeni et al. Padma and Devi 30 (Padma and Devi, 2002) had reported that fish oil reversed mitochondrial respiratory 31 failure. These findings constitute the basis for cardiovascular protective effects of 32 fish and nuts dietary intake (Hu et al. It is postu- 33 lated that the recognized neurological benefits of docosahexaenoic acid, from fatty 34 fish, can be explained also by its capacity to stabilize phospholipids in biological 35 membranes (He et al. Nicotinamide could also decrease free radicals and extend 44 life span (Driver, 2003). Inflammation is also frequently positively associated with 42 aging (Franceschi and Bonaf, 2003). In order to avoid increased mortality due 43 to infectious diseases in the elderly (Yoshikawa, 1997), nutritional deficiencies of 44 macro and micronutrients should be adequately treated. Then, adequate nutrition is a 29 fundamental environmental approach to increase longevity. Numerous clinical studies have shown the detrimental 18 effects of trans- and saturated-fats in the origin and progression of various age-related 19 diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. As structural units, fats and lipids are the integral parts of 31 the cellular and organellar membranes, and of the nerve sheathing. Normal physical 32 and mental growth, development and maturation depend on the optimal availability 33 of dietary fats. Additionally, body fat or adipose tissue helps to protect vital organs 34 from injuries and shocks, and provides a source of energy during prolonged exercise. Vegetable oils are important sources 37 of natural antioxidants, such as tocopherols, tocotrienols and carotenoids. Dietary 38 lipids also play an important role in the immune function by modulating eicosanoid 39 production (Formo, 1979; Lands, 1986; Robert, 1990). Intake 42 43 of oils and fats is primarily through cooking oils, baked products, margarines and 44 335 S. All these sources make up a complex matrix 04 of various visible and invisible oils and fats that end up in our body. Good health 09 is dependent not only on the quantity but also on the quality of the fat. Very often such diseases 13 are associated with excessive and improper intake of dietary fats or deficiency of 14 essential fatty acids. Excessive amounts of free radicals generated from oxidised 15 oils are also related to the origin of various diseases. This chapter discusses the 16 effects of different types of dietary fats on the origin and progression of various 17 age-related diseases. They consist of a glycerol 23 moiety with each hydroxyl group esterified to a fatty acid. Triacylglycerols are 24 synthesised by enzyme systems, which determine that a centre of asymmetry is 25 created about carbon-2 of the glycerol backbone, so they exist in enantiomeric 26 forms, i. The positions of the fatty acids 27 in the glycerol backbone are denoted by sn-1 or sn-3, the two terminal positions 28 and sn-2, the middle position. Fatty acids can be divided into the following three 33 groups: (i) saturated; (ii) monounsaturated and polyunsaturated; and (iii) branched- 34 chain.